Visual relationship detection can bridge the gap between computer vision and natural language for scene understanding of images. Different from pure object recognition tasks, the relation triplets of subject-predicate-object lie on an extreme diversity space, such as \textit{person-behind-person} and \textit{car-behind-building}, while suffering from the problem of combinatorial explosion. In this paper, we propose a context-dependent diffusion network (CDDN) framework to deal with visual relationship detection. To capture the interactions of different object instances, two types of graphs, word semantic graph and visual scene graph, are constructed to encode global context interdependency. The semantic graph is built through language priors to model semantic correlations across objects, whilst the visual scene graph defines the connections of scene objects so as to utilize the surrounding scene information. For the graph-structured data, we design a diffusion network to adaptively aggregate information from contexts, which can effectively learn latent representations of visual relationships and well cater to visual relationship detection in view of its isomorphic invariance to graphs. Experiments on two widely-used datasets demonstrate that our proposed method is more effective and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

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The graph embedding (GE) methods have been widely applied for dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral imagery (HSI). However, a major challenge of GE is how to choose proper neighbors for graph construction and explore the spatial information of HSI data. In this paper, we proposed an unsupervised dimensionality reduction algorithm termed spatial-spectral manifold reconstruction preserving embedding (SSMRPE) for HSI classification. At first, a weighted mean filter (WMF) is employed to preprocess the image, which aims to reduce the influence of background noise. According to the spatial consistency property of HSI, the SSMRPE method utilizes a new spatial-spectral combined distance (SSCD) to fuse the spatial structure and spectral information for selecting effective spatial-spectral neighbors of HSI pixels. Then, it explores the spatial relationship between each point and its neighbors to adjusts the reconstruction weights for improving the efficiency of manifold reconstruction. As a result, the proposed method can extract the discriminant features and subsequently improve the classification performance of HSI. The experimental results on PaviaU and Salinas hyperspectral datasets indicate that SSMRPE can achieve better classification accuracies in comparison with some state-of-the-art methods.

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It is always well believed that modeling relationships between objects would be helpful for representing and eventually describing an image. Nevertheless, there has not been evidence in support of the idea on image description generation. In this paper, we introduce a new design to explore the connections between objects for image captioning under the umbrella of attention-based encoder-decoder framework. Specifically, we present Graph Convolutional Networks plus Long Short-Term Memory (dubbed as GCN-LSTM) architecture that novelly integrates both semantic and spatial object relationships into image encoder. Technically, we build graphs over the detected objects in an image based on their spatial and semantic connections. The representations of each region proposed on objects are then refined by leveraging graph structure through GCN. With the learnt region-level features, our GCN-LSTM capitalizes on LSTM-based captioning framework with attention mechanism for sentence generation. Extensive experiments are conducted on COCO image captioning dataset, and superior results are reported when comparing to state-of-the-art approaches. More remarkably, GCN-LSTM increases CIDEr-D performance from 120.1% to 128.7% on COCO testing set.

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Structured scene descriptions of images are useful for the automatic processing and querying of large image databases. We show how the combination of a semantic and a visual statistical model can improve on the task of mapping images to their associated scene description. In this paper we consider scene descriptions which are represented as a set of triples (subject, predicate, object), where each triple consists of a pair of visual objects, which appear in the image, and the relationship between them (e.g. man-riding-elephant, man-wearing-hat). We combine a standard visual model for object detection, based on convolutional neural networks, with a latent variable model for link prediction. We apply multiple state-of-the-art link prediction methods and compare their capability for visual relationship detection. One of the main advantages of link prediction methods is that they can also generalize to triples, which have never been observed in the training data. Our experimental results on the recently published Stanford Visual Relationship dataset, a challenging real world dataset, show that the integration of a semantic model using link prediction methods can significantly improve the results for visual relationship detection. Our combined approach achieves superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art method from the Stanford computer vision group.

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Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are usually built by stacking convolutional operations layer-by-layer. Although CNN has shown strong capability to extract semantics from raw pixels, its capacity to capture spatial relationships of pixels across rows and columns of an image is not fully explored. These relationships are important to learn semantic objects with strong shape priors but weak appearance coherences, such as traffic lanes, which are often occluded or not even painted on the road surface as shown in Fig. 1 (a). In this paper, we propose Spatial CNN (SCNN), which generalizes traditional deep layer-by-layer convolutions to slice-byslice convolutions within feature maps, thus enabling message passings between pixels across rows and columns in a layer. Such SCNN is particular suitable for long continuous shape structure or large objects, with strong spatial relationship but less appearance clues, such as traffic lanes, poles, and wall. We apply SCNN on a newly released very challenging traffic lane detection dataset and Cityscapse dataset. The results show that SCNN could learn the spatial relationship for structure output and significantly improves the performance. We show that SCNN outperforms the recurrent neural network (RNN) based ReNet and MRF+CNN (MRFNet) in the lane detection dataset by 8.7% and 4.6% respectively. Moreover, our SCNN won the 1st place on the TuSimple Benchmark Lane Detection Challenge, with an accuracy of 96.53%.

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Understanding visual relationships involves identifying the subject, the object, and a predicate relating them. We leverage the strong correlations between the predicate and the (subj,obj) pair (both semantically and spatially) to predict the predicates conditioned on the subjects and the objects. Modeling the three entities jointly more accurately reflects their relationships, but complicates learning since the semantic space of visual relationships is huge and the training data is limited, especially for the long-tail relationships that have few instances. To overcome this, we use knowledge of linguistic statistics to regularize visual model learning. We obtain linguistic knowledge by mining from both training annotations (internal knowledge) and publicly available text, e.g., Wikipedia (external knowledge), computing the conditional probability distribution of a predicate given a (subj,obj) pair. Then, we distill the knowledge into a deep model to achieve better generalization. Our experimental results on the Visual Relationship Detection (VRD) and Visual Genome datasets suggest that with this linguistic knowledge distillation, our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods significantly, especially when predicting unseen relationships (e.g., recall improved from 8.45% to 19.17% on VRD zero-shot testing set).

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