Probabilistic graphical models are powerful tools which allow us to formalise our knowledge about the world and reason about its inherent uncertainty. There exist a considerable number of methods for performing inference in probabilistic graphical models; however, they can be computationally costly due to significant time burden and/or storage requirements; or they lack theoretical guarantees of convergence and accuracy when applied to large scale graphical models. To this end, we propose the Universal Marginaliser Importance Sampler (UM-IS) -- a hybrid inference scheme that combines the flexibility of a deep neural network trained on samples from the model and inherits the asymptotic guarantees of importance sampling. We show how combining samples drawn from the graphical model with an appropriate masking function allows us to train a single neural network to approximate any of the corresponding conditional marginal distributions, and thus amortise the cost of inference. We also show that the graph embeddings can be applied for tasks such as: clustering, classification and interpretation of relationships between the nodes. Finally, we benchmark the method on a large graph (>1000 nodes), showing that UM-IS outperforms sampling-based methods by a large margin while being computationally efficient.

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Computer vision systems require large amounts of manually annotated data to properly learn challenging visual concepts. Crowdsourcing platforms offer an inexpensive method to capture human knowledge and understanding, for a vast number of visual perception tasks. In this survey, we describe the types of annotations computer vision researchers have collected using crowdsourcing, and how they have ensured that this data is of high quality while annotation effort is minimized. We begin by discussing data collection on both classic (e.g., object recognition) and recent (e.g., visual story-telling) vision tasks. We then summarize key design decisions for creating effective data collection interfaces and workflows, and present strategies for intelligently selecting the most important data instances to annotate. Finally, we conclude with some thoughts on the future of crowdsourcing in computer vision.

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