It is always well believed that modeling relationships between objects would be helpful for representing and eventually describing an image. Nevertheless, there has not been evidence in support of the idea on image description generation. In this paper, we introduce a new design to explore the connections between objects for image captioning under the umbrella of attention-based encoder-decoder framework. Specifically, we present Graph Convolutional Networks plus Long Short-Term Memory (dubbed as GCN-LSTM) architecture that novelly integrates both semantic and spatial object relationships into image encoder. Technically, we build graphs over the detected objects in an image based on their spatial and semantic connections. The representations of each region proposed on objects are then refined by leveraging graph structure through GCN. With the learnt region-level features, our GCN-LSTM capitalizes on LSTM-based captioning framework with attention mechanism for sentence generation. Extensive experiments are conducted on COCO image captioning dataset, and superior results are reported when comparing to state-of-the-art approaches. More remarkably, GCN-LSTM increases CIDEr-D performance from 120.1% to 128.7% on COCO testing set.

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The graph embedding (GE) methods have been widely applied for dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral imagery (HSI). However, a major challenge of GE is how to choose proper neighbors for graph construction and explore the spatial information of HSI data. In this paper, we proposed an unsupervised dimensionality reduction algorithm termed spatial-spectral manifold reconstruction preserving embedding (SSMRPE) for HSI classification. At first, a weighted mean filter (WMF) is employed to preprocess the image, which aims to reduce the influence of background noise. According to the spatial consistency property of HSI, the SSMRPE method utilizes a new spatial-spectral combined distance (SSCD) to fuse the spatial structure and spectral information for selecting effective spatial-spectral neighbors of HSI pixels. Then, it explores the spatial relationship between each point and its neighbors to adjusts the reconstruction weights for improving the efficiency of manifold reconstruction. As a result, the proposed method can extract the discriminant features and subsequently improve the classification performance of HSI. The experimental results on PaviaU and Salinas hyperspectral datasets indicate that SSMRPE can achieve better classification accuracies in comparison with some state-of-the-art methods.

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Visual relationship detection can bridge the gap between computer vision and natural language for scene understanding of images. Different from pure object recognition tasks, the relation triplets of subject-predicate-object lie on an extreme diversity space, such as \textit{person-behind-person} and \textit{car-behind-building}, while suffering from the problem of combinatorial explosion. In this paper, we propose a context-dependent diffusion network (CDDN) framework to deal with visual relationship detection. To capture the interactions of different object instances, two types of graphs, word semantic graph and visual scene graph, are constructed to encode global context interdependency. The semantic graph is built through language priors to model semantic correlations across objects, whilst the visual scene graph defines the connections of scene objects so as to utilize the surrounding scene information. For the graph-structured data, we design a diffusion network to adaptively aggregate information from contexts, which can effectively learn latent representations of visual relationships and well cater to visual relationship detection in view of its isomorphic invariance to graphs. Experiments on two widely-used datasets demonstrate that our proposed method is more effective and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.

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Images are not simply sets of objects: each image represents a web of interconnected relationships. These relationships between entities carry semantic meaning and help a viewer differentiate between instances of an entity. For example, in an image of a soccer match, there may be multiple persons present, but each participates in different relationships: one is kicking the ball, and the other is guarding the goal. In this paper, we formulate the task of utilizing these "referring relationships" to disambiguate between entities of the same category. We introduce an iterative model that localizes the two entities in the referring relationship, conditioned on one another. We formulate the cyclic condition between the entities in a relationship by modelling predicates that connect the entities as shifts in attention from one entity to another. We demonstrate that our model can not only outperform existing approaches on three datasets --- CLEVR, VRD and Visual Genome --- but also that it produces visually meaningful predicate shifts, as an instance of interpretable neural networks. Finally, we show that by modelling predicates as attention shifts, we can even localize entities in the absence of their category, allowing our model to find completely unseen categories.

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Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are usually built by stacking convolutional operations layer-by-layer. Although CNN has shown strong capability to extract semantics from raw pixels, its capacity to capture spatial relationships of pixels across rows and columns of an image is not fully explored. These relationships are important to learn semantic objects with strong shape priors but weak appearance coherences, such as traffic lanes, which are often occluded or not even painted on the road surface as shown in Fig. 1 (a). In this paper, we propose Spatial CNN (SCNN), which generalizes traditional deep layer-by-layer convolutions to slice-byslice convolutions within feature maps, thus enabling message passings between pixels across rows and columns in a layer. Such SCNN is particular suitable for long continuous shape structure or large objects, with strong spatial relationship but less appearance clues, such as traffic lanes, poles, and wall. We apply SCNN on a newly released very challenging traffic lane detection dataset and Cityscapse dataset. The results show that SCNN could learn the spatial relationship for structure output and significantly improves the performance. We show that SCNN outperforms the recurrent neural network (RNN) based ReNet and MRF+CNN (MRFNet) in the lane detection dataset by 8.7% and 4.6% respectively. Moreover, our SCNN won the 1st place on the TuSimple Benchmark Lane Detection Challenge, with an accuracy of 96.53%.

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This paper presents a framework for localization or grounding of phrases in images using a large collection of linguistic and visual cues. We model the appearance, size, and position of entity bounding boxes, adjectives that contain attribute information, and spatial relationships between pairs of entities connected by verbs or prepositions. Special attention is given to relationships between people and clothing or body part mentions, as they are useful for distinguishing individuals. We automatically learn weights for combining these cues and at test time, perform joint inference over all phrases in a caption. The resulting system produces state of the art performance on phrase localization on the Flickr30k Entities dataset and visual relationship detection on the Stanford VRD dataset.

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