Knowledge representation learning (KRL) aims to represent entities and relations in knowledge graph in low-dimensional semantic space, which have been widely used in massive knowledge-driven tasks. In this article, we introduce the reader to the motivations for KRL, and overview existing approaches for KRL. Afterwards, we extensively conduct and quantitative comparison and analysis of several typical KRL methods on three evaluation tasks of knowledge acquisition including knowledge graph completion, triple classification, and relation extraction. We also review the real-world applications of KRL, such as language modeling, question answering, information retrieval, and recommender systems. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges and outlook the future directions for KRL. The codes and datasets used in the experiments can be found in https://github.com/thunlp/OpenKE.
In relation extraction for knowledge-based question answering, searching from one entity to another entity via a single relation is called "one hop". In related work, an exhaustive search from all one-hop relations, two-hop relations, and so on to the max-hop relations in the knowledge graph is necessary but expensive. Therefore, the number of hops is generally restricted to two or three. In this paper, we propose UHop, an unrestricted-hop framework which relaxes this restriction by use of a transition-based search framework to replace the relation-chain-based search one. We conduct experiments on conventional 1- and 2-hop questions as well as lengthy questions, including datasets such as WebQSP, PathQuestion, and Grid World. Results show that the proposed framework enables the ability to halt, works well with state-of-the-art models, achieves competitive performance without exhaustive searches, and opens the performance gap for long relation paths.