** Metric Learning for visual similarity has mostly adopted binary supervision indicating whether a pair of images are of the same class or not. Such a binary indicator covers only a limited subset of image relations, and is not sufficient to represent semantic similarity between images described by continuous and/or structured labels such as object poses, image captions, and scene graphs. Motivated by this, we present a novel method for deep metric learning using continuous labels. First, we propose a new triplet loss that allows distance ratios in the label space to be preserved in the learned metric space. The proposed loss thus enables our model to learn the degree of similarity rather than just the order. Furthermore, we design a triplet mining strategy adapted to metric learning with continuous labels. We address three different image retrieval tasks with continuous labels in terms of human poses, room layouts and image captions, and demonstrate the superior performance of our approach compared to previous methods. **

** Image registration is a key technique in medical image analysis to estimate deformations between image pairs. A good deformation model is important for high-quality estimates. However, most existing approaches use ad-hoc deformation models chosen for mathematical convenience rather than to capture observed data variation. Recent deep learning approaches learn deformation models directly from data. However, they provide limited control over the spatial regularity of transformations. Instead of learning the entire registration approach, we learn a spatially-adaptive regularizer within a registration model. This allows controlling the desired level of regularity and preserving structural properties of a registration model. For example, diffeomorphic transformations can be attained. Our approach is a radical departure from existing deep learning approaches to image registration by embedding a deep learning model in an optimization-based registration algorithm to parameterize and data-adapt the registration model itself. **

** We propose a method that substantially improves the efficiency of deep distance metric learning based on the optimization of the triplet loss function. One epoch of such training process based on a naive optimization of the triplet loss function has a run-time complexity O(N^3), where N is the number of training samples. Such optimization scales poorly, and the most common approach proposed to address this high complexity issue is based on sub-sampling the set of triplets needed for the training process. Another approach explored in the field relies on an ad-hoc linearization (in terms of N) of the triplet loss that introduces class centroids, which must be optimized using the whole training set for each mini-batch - this means that a naive implementation of this approach has run-time complexity O(N^2). This complexity issue is usually mitigated with poor, but computationally cheap, approximate centroid optimization methods. In this paper, we first propose a solid theory on the linearization of the triplet loss with the use of class centroids, where the main conclusion is that our new linear loss represents a tight upper-bound to the triplet loss. Furthermore, based on the theory above, we propose a training algorithm that no longer requires the centroid optimization step, which means that our approach is the first in the field with a guaranteed linear run-time complexity. We show that the training of deep distance metric learning methods using the proposed upper-bound is substantially faster than triplet-based methods, while producing competitive retrieval accuracy results on benchmark datasets (CUB-200-2011 and CAR196). **

** In daily life, graphic symbols, such as traffic signs and brand logos, are ubiquitously utilized around us due to its intuitive expression beyond language boundary. We tackle an open-set graphic symbol recognition problem by one-shot classification with prototypical images as a single training example for each novel class. We take an approach to learn a generalizable embedding space for novel tasks. We propose a new approach called variational prototyping-encoder (VPE) that learns the image translation task from real-world input images to their corresponding prototypical images as a meta-task. As a result, VPE learns image similarity as well as prototypical concepts which differs from widely used metric learning based approaches. Our experiments with diverse datasets demonstrate that the proposed VPE performs favorably against competing metric learning based one-shot methods. Also, our qualitative analyses show that our meta-task induces an effective embedding space suitable for unseen data representation. **

** Face recognition has achieved unprecedented results, surpassing human capabilities in certain scenarios. However, these automatic solutions are not ready for production because they can be easily fooled by simple identity impersonation attacks. And although much effort has been devoted to develop face anti-spoofing models, their generalization capacity still remains a challenge in real scenarios. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach that reformulates the Generalized Presentation Attack Detection (GPAD) problem from an anomaly detection perspective. Technically, a deep metric learning model is proposed, where a triplet focal loss is used as a regularization for a novel loss coined "metric-softmax", which is in charge of guiding the learning process towards more discriminative feature representations in an embedding space. Finally, we demonstrate the benefits of our deep anomaly detection architecture, by introducing a few-shot a posteriori probability estimation that does not need any classifier to be trained on the learned features. We conduct extensive experiments using the GRAD-GPAD framework that provides the largest aggregated dataset for face GPAD. Results confirm that our approach is able to outperform all the state-of-the-art methods by a considerable margin. **

** Deep metric learning aims to learn a deep embedding that can capture the semantic similarity of data points. Given the availability of massive training samples, deep metric learning is known to suffer from slow convergence due to a large fraction of trivial samples. Therefore, most existing methods generally resort to sample mining strategies for selecting nontrivial samples to accelerate convergence and improve performance. In this work, we identify two critical limitations of the sample mining methods, and provide solutions for both of them. First, previous mining methods assign one binary score to each sample, i.e., dropping or keeping it, so they only selects a subset of relevant samples in a mini-batch. Therefore, we propose a novel sample mining method, called Online Soft Mining (OSM), which assigns one continuous score to each sample to make use of all samples in the mini-batch. OSM learns extended manifolds that preserve useful intraclass variances by focusing on more similar positives. Second, the existing methods are easily influenced by outliers as they are generally included in the mined subset. To address this, we introduce Class-Aware Attention (CAA) that assigns little attention to abnormal data samples. Furthermore, by combining OSM and CAA, we propose a novel weighted contrastive loss to learn discriminative embeddings. Extensive experiments on two fine-grained visual categorisation datasets and two video-based person re-identification benchmarks show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art. **

** The objective of deep metric learning (DML) is to learn embeddings that can capture semantic similarity information among data points. Existing pairwise or tripletwise loss functions used in DML are known to suffer from slow convergence due to a large proportion of trivial pairs or triplets as the model improves. To improve this, rankingmotivated structured losses are proposed recently to incorporate multiple examples and exploit the structured information among them. They converge faster and achieve state-of-the-art performance. In this work, we present two limitations of existing ranking-motivated structured losses and propose a novel ranked list loss to solve both of them. First, given a query, only a fraction of data points is incorporated to build the similarity structure. Consequently, some useful examples are ignored and the structure is less informative. To address this, we propose to build a setbased similarity structure by exploiting all instances in the gallery. The samples are split into a positive set and a negative set. Our objective is to make the query closer to the positive set than to the negative set by a margin. Second, previous methods aim to pull positive pairs as close as possible in the embedding space. As a result, the intraclass data distribution might be dropped. In contrast, we propose to learn a hypersphere for each class in order to preserve the similarity structure inside it. Our extensive experiments show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on three widely used benchmarks. **

** A family of loss functions built on pair-based computation have been proposed in the literature which provide a myriad of solutions for deep metric learning. In this paper, we provide a general weighting framework for understanding recent pair-based loss functions. Our contributions are three-fold: (1) we establish a General Pair Weighting (GPW) framework, which casts the sampling problem of deep metric learning into a unified view of pair weighting through gradient analysis, providing a powerful tool for understanding recent pair-based loss functions; (2) we show that with GPW, various existing pair-based methods can be compared and discussed comprehensively, with clear differences and key limitations identified; (3) we propose a new loss called multi-similarity loss (MS loss) under the GPW, which is implemented in two iterative steps (i.e., mining and weighting). This allows it to fully consider three similarities for pair weighting, providing a more principled approach for collecting and weighting informative pairs. Finally, the proposed MS loss obtains new state-of-the-art performance on four image retrieval benchmarks, where it outperforms the most recent approaches, such as ABE\cite{Kim_2018_ECCV} and HTL by a large margin: 60.6% to 65.7% on CUB200, and 80.9% to 88.0% on In-Shop Clothes Retrieval dataset at [email protected] Code is available at https://github.com/MalongTech/research-ms-loss. **

** The extraction of useful deep features is important for many computer vision tasks. Deep features extracted from classification networks have proved to perform well in those tasks. To obtain features of greater usefulness, end-to-end distance metric learning (DML) has been applied to train the feature extractor directly. However, in these DML studies, there were no equitable comparisons between features extracted from a DML-based network and those from a softmax-based network. In this paper, by presenting objective comparisons between these two approaches under the same network architecture, we show that the softmax-based features perform competitive, or even better, to the state-of-the-art DML features when the size of the dataset, that is, the number of training samples per class, is large. The results suggest that softmax-based features should be properly taken into account when evaluating the performance of deep features. **

** This paper presents the Speech Technology Center (STC) speaker recognition (SR) systems submitted to the VOiCES From a Distance challenge 2019. The challenge's SR task is focused on the problem of speaker recognition in single channel distant/far-field audio under noisy conditions. In this work we investigate different deep neural networks architectures for speaker embedding extraction to solve the task. We show that deep networks with residual frame level connections outperform more shallow architectures. Simple energy based speech activity detector (SAD) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) based SAD are investigated in this work. We also address the problem of data preparation for robust embedding extractors training. The reverberation for the data augmentation was performed using automatic room impulse response generator. In our systems we used discriminatively trained cosine similarity metric learning model as embedding backend. Scores normalization procedure was applied for each individual subsystem we used. Our final submitted systems were based on the fusion of different subsystems. The results obtained on the VOiCES development and evaluation sets demonstrate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed systems when dealing with distant/far-field audio under noisy conditions. **

** Knowledge distillation aims at transferring knowledge acquired in one model (a teacher) to another model (a student) that is typically smaller. Previous approaches can be expressed as a form of training the student to mimic output activations of individual data examples represented by the teacher. We introduce a novel approach, dubbed relational knowledge distillation (RKD), that transfers mutual relations of data examples instead. For concrete realizations of RKD, we propose distance-wise and angle-wise distillation losses that penalize structural differences in relations. Experiments conducted on different tasks show that the proposed method improves educated student models with a significant margin. In particular for metric learning, it allows students to outperform their teachers' performance, achieving the state of the arts on standard benchmark datasets. **