计算机视觉是一门研究如何使机器“看”的科学,更进一步的说,就是是指用摄影机和电脑代替人眼对目标进行识别、跟踪和测量等机器视觉,并进一步做图形处理,使电脑处理成为更适合人眼观察或传送给仪器检测的图像。作为一个科学学科,计算机视觉研究相关的理论和技术,试图建立能够从图像或者多维数据中获取‘信息’的人工智能系统。

    Given a video of a person in action, we can easily guess the 3D future motion of the person. In this work, we present perhaps the first approach for predicting a future 3D mesh model sequence of a person from past video input. We do this for periodic motions such as walking and also actions like bowling and squatting seen in sports or workout videos. While there has been a surge of future prediction problems in computer vision, most approaches predict 3D future from 3D past or 2D future from 2D past inputs. In this work, we focus on the problem of predicting 3D future motion from past image sequences, which has a plethora of practical applications in autonomous systems that must operate safely around people from visual inputs. Inspired by the success of autoregressive models in language modeling tasks, we learn an intermediate latent space on which we predict the future. This effectively facilitates autoregressive predictions when the input differs from the output domain. Our approach can be trained on video sequences obtained in-the-wild without 3D ground truth labels. The project website with videos can be found at https://jasonyzhang.com/phd.

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    In the real world, a learning system could receive an input that is unlike anything it has seen during training. Unfortunately, out-of-distribution samples can lead to unpredictable behaviour. We need to know whether any given input belongs to the population distribution of the training/evaluation data to prevent unpredictable behaviour in deployed systems. A recent surge of interest in this problem has led to the development of sophisticated techniques in the deep learning literature. However, due to the absence of a standard problem definition or an exhaustive evaluation, it is not evident if we can rely on these methods. What makes this problem different from a typical supervised learning setting is that the distribution of outliers used in training may not be the same as the distribution of outliers encountered in the application. Classical approaches that learn inliers vs. outliers with only two datasets can yield optimistic results. We introduce OD-test, a three-dataset evaluation scheme as a more reliable strategy to assess progress on this problem. We present an exhaustive evaluation of a broad set of methods from related areas on image classification tasks. Contrary to the existing results, we show that for realistic applications of high-dimensional images the previous techniques have low accuracy and are not reliable in practice.

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    In this paper we present a novel deep learning method for 3D object detection and 6D pose estimation from RGB images. Our method, named DPOD (Dense Pose Object Detector), estimates dense multi-class 2D-3D correspondence maps between an input image and available 3D models. Given the correspondences, a 6DoF pose is computed via PnP and RANSAC. An additional RGB pose refinement of the initial pose estimates is performed using a custom deep learning-based refinement scheme. Our results and comparison to a vast number of related works demonstrate that a large number of correspondences is beneficial for obtaining high-quality 6D poses both before and after refinement. Unlike other methods that mainly use real data for training and do not train on synthetic renderings, we perform evaluation on both synthetic and real training data demonstrating superior results before and after refinement when compared to all recent detectors. While being precise, the presented approach is still real-time capable.

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    To understand and analyze human behavior, we need to capture humans moving in, and interacting with, the world. Most existing methods perform 3D human pose estimation without explicitly considering the scene. We observe however that the world constrains the body and vice-versa. To motivate this, we show that current 3D human pose estimation methods produce results that are not consistent with the 3D scene. Our key contribution is to exploit static 3D scene structure to better estimate human pose from monocular images. The method enforces Proximal Relationships with Object eXclusion and is called PROX. To test this, we collect a new dataset composed of 12 different 3D scenes and RGB sequences of 20 subjects moving in and interacting with the scenes. We represent human pose using the 3D human body model SMPL-X and extend SMPLify-X to estimate body pose using scene constraints. We make use of the 3D scene information by formulating two main constraints. The inter-penetration constraint penalizes intersection between the body model and the surrounding 3D scene. The contact constraint encourages specific parts of the body to be in contact with scene surfaces if they are close enough in distance and orientation. For quantitative evaluation we capture a separate dataset with 180 RGB frames in which the ground-truth body pose is estimated using a motion capture system. We show quantitatively that introducing scene constraints significantly reduces 3D joint error and vertex error. Our code and data are available for research at https://prox.is.tue.mpg.de.

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    Despite remarkable recent progress on both unconditional and conditional image synthesis, it remains a long-standing problem to learn generative models that are capable of synthesizing realistic and sharp images from reconfigurable spatial layout (i.e., bounding boxes + class labels in an image lattice) and style (i.e., structural and appearance variations encoded by latent vectors), especially at high resolution. By reconfigurable, it means that a model can preserve the intrinsic one-to-many mapping from a given layout to multiple plausible images with different styles, and is adaptive with respect to perturbations of a layout and style latent code. In this paper, we present a layout- and style-based architecture for generative adversarial networks (termed LostGANs) that can be trained end-to-end to generate images from reconfigurable layout and style. Inspired by the vanilla StyleGAN, the proposed LostGAN consists of two new components: (i) learning fine-grained mask maps in a weakly-supervised manner to bridge the gap between layouts and images, and (ii) learning object instance-specific layout-aware feature normalization (ISLA-Norm) in the generator to realize multi-object style generation. In experiments, the proposed method is tested on the COCO-Stuff dataset and the Visual Genome dataset with state-of-the-art performance obtained. The code and pretrained models are available at \url{https://github.com/iVMCL/LostGANs}.

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    Recent advances in single-frame object detection and segmentation techniques have motivated a wide range of works to extend these methods to process video streams. In this paper, we explore the idea of hard attention aimed for latency-sensitive applications. Instead of reasoning about every frame separately, our method selects and only processes a small sub-window of the frame. Our technique then makes predictions for the full frame based on the sub-windows from previous frames and the update from the current sub-window. The latency reduction by this hard attention mechanism comes at the cost of degraded accuracy. We made two contributions to address this. First, we propose a specialized memory cell that recovers lost context when processing sub-windows. Secondly, we adopt a Q-learning-based policy training strategy that enables our approach to intelligently select the sub-windows such that the staleness in the memory hurts the performance the least. Our experiments suggest that our approach reduces the latency by approximately four times without significantly sacrificing the accuracy on the ImageNet VID video object detection dataset and the DAVIS video object segmentation dataset. We further demonstrate that we can reinvest the saved computation into other parts of the network, and thus resulting in an accuracy increase at a comparable computational cost as the original system and beating other recently proposed state-of-the-art methods in the low latency range.

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    Vision-and-language reasoning requires an understanding of visual concepts, language semantics, and, most importantly, the alignment and relationships between these two modalities. We thus propose the LXMERT (Learning Cross-Modality Encoder Representations from Transformers) framework to learn these vision-and-language connections. In LXMERT, we build a large-scale Transformer model that consists of three encoders: an object relationship encoder, a language encoder, and a cross-modality encoder. Next, to endow our model with the capability of connecting vision and language semantics, we pre-train the model with large amounts of image-and-sentence pairs, via five diverse representative pre-training tasks: masked language modeling, masked object prediction (feature regression and label classification), cross-modality matching, and image question answering. These tasks help in learning both intra-modality and cross-modality relationships. After fine-tuning from our pre-trained parameters, our model achieves the state-of-the-art results on two visual question answering datasets (i.e., VQA and GQA). We also show the generalizability of our pre-trained cross-modality model by adapting it to a challenging visual-reasoning task, NLVR2, and improve the previous best result by 22% absolute (54% to 76%). Lastly, we demonstrate detailed ablation studies to prove that both our novel model components and pre-training strategies significantly contribute to our strong results. Code and pre-trained models publicly available at: https://github.com/airsplay/lxmert

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    We present a novel approach to tackle domain adaptation between synthetic and real data. Instead, of employing "blind" domain randomization, i.e., augmenting synthetic renderings with random backgrounds or changing illumination and colorization, we leverage the task network as its own adversarial guide toward useful augmentations that maximize the uncertainty of the output. To this end, we design a min-max optimization scheme where a given task competes against a special deception network to minimize the task error subject to the specific constraints enforced by the deceiver. The deception network samples from a family of differentiable pixel-level perturbations and exploits the task architecture to find the most destructive augmentations. Unlike GAN-based approaches that require unlabeled data from the target domain, our method achieves robust mappings that scale well to multiple target distributions from source data alone. We apply our framework to the tasks of digit recognition on enhanced MNIST variants, classification and object pose estimation on the Cropped LineMOD dataset as well as semantic segmentation on the Cityscapes dataset and compare it to a number of domain adaptation approaches, thereby demonstrating similar results with superior generalization capabilities.

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    We study end-to-end learning strategies for 3D shape inference from images, in particular from a single image. Several approaches in this direction have been investigated that explore different shape representations and suitable learning architectures. We focus instead on the underlying probabilistic mechanisms involved and contribute a more principled probabilistic inference-based reconstruction framework, which we coin Probabilistic Reconstruction Networks. This framework expresses image conditioned 3D shape inference through a family of latent variable models, and naturally decouples the choice of shape representations from the inference itself. Moreover, it suggests different options for the image conditioning and allows training in two regimes, using either Monte Carlo or variational approximation of the marginal likelihood. Using our Probabilistic Reconstruction Networks we obtain single image 3D reconstruction results that set a new state of the art on the ShapeNet dataset in terms of the intersection over union and earth mover's distance evaluation metrics. Interestingly, we obtain these results using a basic voxel grid representation, improving over recent work based on finer point cloud or mesh based representations.

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    Magic is the art of producing in the spectator an illusion of impossibility. Although the scientific study of magic is in its infancy, the advent of recent tracking algorithms based on deep learning allow now to quantify the skills of the magician in naturalistic conditions at unprecedented resolution and robustness. In this study, we deconstructed stage magic into purely motor maneuvers and trained an artificial neural network (DeepLabCut) to follow coins as a professional magician made them appear and disappear in a series of tricks. Rather than using AI as a mere tracking tool, we conceived it as an "artificial spectator". When the coins were not visible, the algorithm was trained to infer their location as a human spectator would (i.e. in the left fist). This created situations where the human was fooled while AI (as seen by a human) was not, and vice versa. Magic from the perspective of the machine reveals our own cognitive biases.

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    We tackle the fundamentally ill-posed problem of 3D human localization from monocular RGB images. Driven by the limitation of neural networks outputting point estimates, we address the ambiguity in the task by predicting confidence intervals through a loss function based on the Laplace distribution. Our architecture is a light-weight feed-forward neural network that predicts 3D locations and corresponding confidence intervals given 2D human poses. The design is particularly well suited for small training data, cross-dataset generalization, and real-time applications. Our experiments show that we (i) outperform state-of-the-art results on KITTI and nuScenes datasets, (ii) even outperform a stereo-based method for far-away pedestrians, and (iii) estimate meaningful confidence intervals. We further share insights on our model of uncertainty in cases of limited observations and out-of-distribution samples.

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    Estimating the 6D pose of objects using only RGB images remains challenging because of problems such as occlusion and symmetries. It is also difficult to construct 3D models with precise texture without expert knowledge or specialized scanning devices. To address these problems, we propose a novel pose estimation method, Pix2Pose, that predicts the 3D coordinates of each object pixel without textured models. An auto-encoder architecture is designed to estimate the 3D coordinates and expected errors per pixel. These pixel-wise predictions are then used in multiple stages to form 2D-3D correspondences to directly compute poses with the PnP algorithm with RANSAC iterations. Our method is robust to occlusion by leveraging recent achievements in generative adversarial training to precisely recover occluded parts. Furthermore, a novel loss function, the transformer loss, is proposed to handle symmetric objects by guiding predictions to the closest symmetric pose. Evaluations on three different benchmark datasets containing symmetric and occluded objects show our method outperforms the state of the art using only RGB images.

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    Recent progress on physics-based character animation has shown impressive breakthroughs on human motion synthesis, through the imitation of motion capture data via deep reinforcement learning. However, results have mostly been demonstrated on imitating a single distinct motion pattern, and do not generalize to interactive tasks that require flexible motion patterns due to varying human-object spatial configurations. In this paper, we focus on one class of interactive task---sitting onto a chair. We propose a hierarchical reinforcement learning framework which relies on a collection of subtask controllers trained to imitate simple, reusable mocap motions, and a meta controller trained to execute the subtasks properly to complete the main task. We experimentally demonstrate the strength of our approach over different single level and hierarchical baselines. We also show that our approach can be applied to motion prediction given an image input. A video highlight can be found at https://youtu.be/3CeN0OGz2cA.

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    In this paper we introduce ViSiL, a Video Similarity Learning architecture that considers fine-grained Spatio-Temporal relations between pairs of videos -- such relations are typically lost in previous video retrieval approaches that embed the whole frame or even the whole video into a vector descriptor before the similarity estimation. By contrast, our Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based approach is trained to calculate video-to-video similarity from refined frame-to-frame similarity matrices, so as to consider both intra- and inter-frame relations. In the proposed method, pairwise frame similarity is estimated by applying Tensor Dot (TD) followed by Chamfer Similarity (CS) on regional CNN frame features - this avoids feature aggregation before the similarity calculation between frames. Subsequently, the similarity matrix between all video frames is fed to a four-layer CNN, and then summarized using Chamfer Similarity (CS) into a video-to-video similarity score -- this avoids feature aggregation before the similarity calculation between videos and captures the temporal similarity patterns between matching frame sequences. We train the proposed network using a triplet loss scheme and evaluate it on five public benchmark datasets on four different video retrieval problems where we demonstrate large improvements in comparison to the state of the art. The implementation of ViSiL is publicly available.

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    This paper proposes a novel approach to regularize the ill-posed blind image deconvolution (blind image deblurring) problem using deep generative networks. We employ two separate deep generative models - one trained to produce sharp images while the other trained to generate blur kernels from lower dimensional parameters. To deblur, we propose an alternating gradient descent scheme operating in the latent lower-dimensional space of each of the pretrained generative models. Our experiments show excellent deblurring results even under large blurs and heavy noise. To improve the performance on rich image datasets not well learned by the generative networks, we present a modification of the proposed scheme that governs the deblurring process under both generative and classical priors.

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