强化学习 (Reinforcement learning) 是受到行为心理学启发,机器学习中研究个体 (agent) 如何在环境中采取行动以最大化奖赏 (reward) 的领域。

这一问题由于其普遍性,在许多领域中都有研究,例如博弈论,控制论,运筹学,信息论,等等。

    This paper addresses two challenges facing sampling-based kinodynamic motion planning: a way to identify good candidate states for local transitions and the subsequent computationally intractable steering between these candidate states. Through the combination of sampling-based planning, a Rapidly Exploring Randomized Tree (RRT) and an efficient kinodynamic motion planner through machine learning, we propose an efficient solution to long-range planning for kinodynamic motion planning. First, we use deep reinforcement learning to learn an obstacle-avoiding policy that maps a robot's sensor observations to actions, which is used as a local planner during planning and as a controller during execution. Second, we train a reachability estimator in a supervised manner, which predicts the RL policy's time to reach a state in the presence of obstacles. Lastly, we introduce RL-RRT that uses the RL policy as a local planner, and the reachability estimator as the distance function to bias tree-growth towards promising regions. We evaluate our method on three kinodynamic systems, including physical robot experiments. Results across all three robots tested indicate that RL-RRT outperforms state of the art kinodynamic planners in efficiency, and also provides a shorter path finish time than a steering function free method. The learned local planner policy and accompanying reachability estimator demonstrate transferability to the previously unseen experimental environments, making RL-RRT fast because the expensive computations are replaced with simple neural network inference. Video: https://youtu.be/dDMVMTOI8KY

    点赞 0
    阅读1+

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are envisioned to complement the 5G communication infrastructure in future smart cities. Hot spots easily appear in road intersections, where effective communication among vehicles is challenging. UAVs may serve as relays with the advantages of low price, easy deployment, line-of-sight links, and flexible mobility. In this paper, we study a UAV-assisted vehicular network where the UAV jointly adjusts its transmission power and bandwidth allocation under 3D flight to maximize the total throughput. First, we formulate a Markov Decision Process (MDP) problem by modeling the mobility of the UAV/vehicles and the state transitions. Secondly, we solve the target problem using a deep reinforcement learning method, namely, the deep deterministic policy gradient, and propose three solutions with different control objectives. Then we extend the proposed solutions by considering the energy consumption of 3D flight. Thirdly, in a simplified model with small state space and action space, we verify the optimality of proposed algorithms. Comparing with two baseline schemes, we demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed algorithms in a realistic model.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Imitation learning, followed by reinforcement learning algorithms, is a promising paradigm to solve complex control tasks sample-efficiently. However, learning from demonstrations often suffers from the covariate shift problem, which results in cascading errors of the learned policy. We introduce a notion of conservatively-extrapolated value functions, which provably lead to policies with self-correction. We design an algorithm Value Iteration with Negative Sampling (VINS) that practically learns such value functions with conservative extrapolation. We show that VINS can correct mistakes of the behavioral cloning policy on simulated robotics benchmark tasks. We also propose the algorithm of using VINS to initialize a reinforcement learning algorithm, which is shown to outperform significantly prior works in sample efficiency.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    We present the first complete attempt at concurrently training conversational agents that communicate only via self-generated language. Using DSTC2 as seed data, we trained natural language understanding (NLU) and generation (NLG) networks for each agent and let the agents interact online. We model the interaction as a stochastic collaborative game where each agent (player) has a role ("assistant", "tourist", "eater", etc.) and their own objectives, and can only interact via natural language they generate. Each agent, therefore, needs to learn to operate optimally in an environment with multiple sources of uncertainty (its own NLU and NLG, the other agent's NLU, Policy, and NLG). In our evaluation, we show that the stochastic-game agents outperform deep learning based supervised baselines.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    In instruction conditioned navigation, agents interpret natural language and their surroundings to navigate through an environment. Datasets for studying this task typically contain pairs of these instructions and reference trajectories. Yet, most evaluation metrics used thus far fail to properly account for the latter, relying instead on insufficient similarity comparisons. We address fundamental flaws in previously used metrics and show how Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), a long known method of measuring similarity between two time series, can be used for evaluation of navigation agents. For such, we define the normalized Dynamic Time Warping (nDTW) metric, that softly penalizes deviations from the reference path, is naturally sensitive to the order of the nodes composing each path, is suited for both continuous and graph-based evaluations, and can be efficiently calculated. Further, we define SDTW, which constrains nDTW to only successful paths. We collect human similarity judgments for simulated paths and find nDTW correlates better with human rankings than all other metrics. We also demonstrate that using nDTW as a reward signal for Reinforcement Learning navigation agents improves their performance on both the Room-to-Room (R2R) and Room-for-Room (R4R) datasets. The R4R results in particular highlight the superiority of SDTW over previous success-constrained metrics.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    We present Imitation-Projected Policy Gradient (IPPG), an algorithmic framework for learning policies that are parsimoniously represented in a structured programming language. Such programmatic policies can be more interpretable, generalizable, and amenable to formal verification than neural policies; however, designing rigorous learning approaches for programmatic policies remains a challenge. IPPG, our response to this challenge, is based on three insights. First, we view our learning task as optimization in policy space, modulo the constraint that the desired policy has a programmatic representation, and solve this optimization problem using a "lift-and-project" perspective that takes a gradient step into the unconstrained policy space and then projects back onto the constrained space. Second, we view the unconstrained policy space as mixing neural and programmatic representations, which enables employing state-of-the-art deep policy gradient approaches. Third, we cast the projection step as program synthesis via imitation learning, and exploit contemporary combinatorial methods for this task. We present theoretical convergence results for IPPG, as well as an empirical evaluation in three continuous control domains. The experiments show that IPPG can significantly outperform state-of-the-art approaches for learning programmatic policies.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Modern Reinforcement Learning (RL) is commonly applied to practical problems with an enormous number of states, where function approximation must be deployed to approximate either the value function or the policy. The introduction of function approximation raises a fundamental set of challenges involving computational and statistical efficiency, especially given the need to manage the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. As a result, a core RL question remains open: how can we design provably efficient RL algorithms that incorporate function approximation? This question persists even in a basic setting with linear dynamics and linear rewards, for which only linear function approximation is needed. This paper presents the first provable RL algorithm with both polynomial runtime and polynomial sample complexity in this linear setting, without requiring a "simulator" or additional assumptions. Concretely, we prove that an optimistic modification of Least-Squares Value Iteration (LSVI)---a classical algorithm frequently studied in the linear setting---achieves $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\sqrt{d^3H^3T})$ regret, where $d$ is the ambient dimension of feature space, $H$ is the length of each episode, and $T$ is the total number of steps. Importantly, such regret is independent of the number of states and actions.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    In this paper, we present a learning approach to goal assignment and trajectory planning for unlabeled robots operating in 2D, obstacle-filled workspaces. More specifically, we tackle the unlabeled multi-robot motion planning problem with motion constraints as a multi-agent reinforcement learning problem with some sparse global reward. In contrast with previous works, which formulate an entirely new hand-crafted optimization cost or trajectory generation algorithm for a different robot dynamic model, our framework is a general approach that is applicable to arbitrary robot models. Further, by using the velocity obstacle, we devise a smooth projection that guarantees collision free trajectories for all robots with respect to their neighbors and obstacles. The efficacy of our algorithm is demonstrated through varied simulations.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Cooperative game is a critical research area in multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL). Global reward game is a subclass of cooperative games, where all agents aim to maximize cumulative global rewards. Credit assignment is an important problem studied in the global reward game. Most works stand by the view of non-cooperative-game theoretical framework with the shared reward approach, i.e., each agent is assigned a shared global reward directly. This, however, may give each agent an inaccurate feedback on his contribution to the group. In this paper, we introduce a cooperative-game theoretical framework and extend it to the finite-horizon case. We show that our proposed framework is a superset of the global reward game. Based on this framework, we propose an algorithm called Shapley Q-value policy gradient (SQPG) to learn a local reward approach that can distribute the cumulative global reward fairly, reflecting each agent's own contribution in contrast to the shared reward approach. We evaluate our method on the Cooperative Navigation, Prey-and-Predator and Traffic Junction, compared with MADDPG, COMA, Independent actor-critic and Independent DDPG. In the experiments, our algorithm shows better convergence than the baselines.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    While model-based deep reinforcement learning (RL) holds great promise for sample efficiency and generalization, learning an accurate dynamics model is often challenging and requires substantial interaction with the environment. A wide variety of domains have dynamics that share common foundations like the laws of classical mechanics, which are rarely exploited by existing algorithms. In fact, humans continuously acquire and use such dynamics priors to easily adapt to operating in new environments. In this work, we propose an approach to learn task-agnostic dynamics priors from videos and incorporate them into an RL agent. Our method involves pre-training a frame predictor on task-agnostic physics videos to initialize dynamics models (and fine-tune them) for unseen target environments. Our frame prediction architecture, SpatialNet, is designed specifically to capture localized physical phenomena and interactions. Our approach allows for both faster policy learning and convergence to better policies, outperforming competitive approaches on several different environments. We also demonstrate that incorporating this prior allows for more effective transfer between environments.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Batch Reinforcement Learning (Batch RL) consists in training a policy using trajectories collected with another policy, called the behavioural policy. Safe policy improvement (SPI) provides guarantees with high probability that the trained policy performs better than the behavioural policy, also called baseline in this setting. Previous work shows that the SPI objective improves mean performance as compared to using the basic RL objective, which boils down to solving the MDP with maximum likelihood. Here, we build on that work and improve more precisely the SPI with Baseline Bootstrapping algorithm (SPIBB) by allowing the policy search over a wider set of policies. Instead of binarily classifying the state-action pairs into two sets (the \textit{uncertain} and the \textit{safe-to-train-on} ones), we adopt a softer strategy that controls the error in the value estimates by constraining the policy change according to the local model uncertainty. The method can take more risks on uncertain actions all the while remaining provably-safe, and is therefore less conservative than the state-of-the-art methods. We propose two algorithms (one optimal and one approximate) to solve this constrained optimization problem and empirically show a significant improvement over existing SPI algorithms both on finite MDPs and on infinite MDPs with a neural network function approximation.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Reinforcement learning usually makes use of numerical rewards, which have nice properties but also come with drawbacks and difficulties. Using rewards on an ordinal scale (ordinal rewards) is an alternative to numerical rewards that has received more attention in recent years. In this paper, a general approach to adapting reinforcement learning problems to the use of ordinal rewards is presented and motivated. We show how to convert common reinforcement learning algorithms to an ordinal variation by the example of Q-learning and introduce Ordinal Deep Q-Networks, which adapt deep reinforcement learning to ordinal rewards. Additionally, we run evaluations on problems provided by the OpenAI Gym framework, showing that our ordinal variants exhibit a performance that is comparable to the numerical variations for a number of problems. We also give first evidence that our ordinal variant is able to produce better results for problems with less engineered and simpler-to-design reward signals.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    In multi-task reinforcement learning there are two main challenges: at training time, the ability to learn different policies with a single model; at test time, inferring which of those policies applying without an external signal. In the case of continual reinforcement learning a third challenge arises: learning tasks sequentially without forgetting the previous ones. In this paper, we tackle these challenges by proposing DisCoRL, an approach combining state representation learning and policy distillation. We experiment on a sequence of three simulated 2D navigation tasks with a 3 wheel omni-directional robot. Moreover, we tested our approach's robustness by transferring the final policy into a real life setting. The policy can solve all tasks and automatically infer which one to run.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Recommender systems play a crucial role in our daily lives. Feed streaming mechanism has been widely used in the recommender system, especially on the mobile Apps. The feed streaming setting provides users the interactive manner of recommendation in never-ending feeds. In such an interactive manner, a good recommender system should pay more attention to user stickiness, which is far beyond classical instant metrics, and typically measured by {\bf long-term user engagement}. Directly optimizing the long-term user engagement is a non-trivial problem, as the learning target is usually not available for conventional supervised learning methods. Though reinforcement learning~(RL) naturally fits the problem of maximizing the long term rewards, applying RL to optimize long-term user engagement is still facing challenges: user behaviors are versatile and difficult to model, which typically consists of both instant feedback~(e.g. clicks, ordering) and delayed feedback~(e.g. dwell time, revisit); in addition, performing effective off-policy learning is still immature, especially when combining bootstrapping and function approximation. To address these issues, in this work, we introduce a reinforcement learning framework --- FeedRec to optimize the long-term user engagement. FeedRec includes two components: 1)~a Q-Network which designed in hierarchical LSTM takes charge of modeling complex user behaviors, and 2)~an S-Network, which simulates the environment, assists the Q-Network and voids the instability of convergence in policy learning. Extensive experiments on synthetic data and a real-world large scale data show that FeedRec effectively optimizes the long-term user engagement and outperforms state-of-the-arts.

    点赞 0
    阅读1+

    Off-policy learning is more unstable compared to on-policy learning in reinforcement learning (RL). One reason for the instability of off-policy learning is a discrepancy between the target ($\pi$) and behavior (b) policy distributions. The discrepancy between $\pi$ and b distributions can be alleviated by employing a smooth variant of the importance sampling (IS), such as the relative importance sampling (RIS). RIS has parameter $\beta\in[0, 1]$ which controls smoothness. To cope with instability, we present the first relative importance sampling-off-policy actor-critic (RIS-Off-PAC) model-free algorithms in RL. In our method, the network yields a target policy (the actor), a value function (the critic) assessing the current policy ($\pi$) using samples drawn from behavior policy. We use action value generated from the behavior policy in reward function to train our algorithm rather than from the target policy. We also use deep neural networks to train both actor and critic. We evaluated our algorithm on a number of Open AI Gym benchmark problems and demonstrate better or comparable performance to several state-of-the-art RL baselines.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+
Top