Although recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for reinforcement learning (RL) have addressed unique advantages in various aspects, e. g., solving memory-dependent tasks and meta-learning, very few studies have demonstrated how RNNs can solve the problem of hierarchical RL by autonomously developing hierarchical control. In this paper, we propose a novel model-free RL framework called ReMASTER, which combines an off-policy actor-critic algorithm with a multiple timescale stochastic recurrent neural network for solving memory-dependent and hierarchical tasks. We performed experiments using a challenging continuous control task and showed that: (1) Internal representation necessary for achieving hierarchical control autonomously develops through exploratory learning. (2) Stochastic neurons in RNNs enable faster relearning when adapting to a new task which is a recomposition of sub-goals previously learned.
The goal of few-shot learning is to learn a classifier that generalizes well even when trained with a limited number of training instances per class. The recently introduced meta-learning approaches tackle this problem by learning a generic classifier across a large number of multiclass classification tasks and generalizing the model to a new task. Yet, even with such meta-learning, the low-data problem in the novel classification task still remains. In this paper, we propose Transductive Propagation Network (TPN), a novel meta-learning framework for transductive inference that classifies the entire test set at once to alleviate the low-data problem. Specifically, we propose to learn to propagate labels from labeled instances to unlabeled test instances, by learning a graph construction module that exploits the manifold structure in the data. TPN jointly learns both the parameters of feature embedding and the graph construction in an end-to-end manner. We validate TPN on multiple benchmark datasets, on which it largely outperforms existing few-shot learning approaches and achieves the state-of-the-art results.
Transfer-learning and meta-learning are two effective methods to apply knowledge learned from large data sources to new tasks. In few-class, few-shot target task settings (i.e. when there are only a few classes and training examples available in the target task), meta-learning approaches that optimize for future task learning have outperformed the typical transfer approach of initializing model weights from a pre-trained starting point. But as we experimentally show, meta-learning algorithms that work well in the few-class setting do not generalize well in many-shot and many-class cases. In this paper, we propose a joint training approach that combines both transfer-learning and meta-learning. Benefiting from the advantages of each, our method obtains improved generalization performance on unseen target tasks in both few- and many-class and few- and many-shot scenarios.
Nowadays, the adoption of face recognition for biometric authentication systems is usual, mainly because this is one of the most accessible biometric modalities. Techniques that rely on trespassing these kind of systems by using a forged biometric sample, such as a printed paper or a recorded video of a genuine access, are known as presentation attacks, but may be also referred in the literature as face spoofing. Presentation attack detection is a crucial step for preventing this kind of unauthorized accesses into restricted areas and/or devices. In this paper, we propose a novel approach which relies in a combination between intrinsic image properties and deep neural networks to detect presentation attack attempts. Our method explores depth, salience and illumination maps, associated with a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network in order to produce robust and discriminant features. Each one of these properties are individually classified and, in the end of the process, they are combined by a meta learning classifier, which achieves outstanding results on the most popular datasets for PAD. Results show that proposed method is able to overpass state-of-the-art results in an inter-dataset protocol, which is defined as the most challenging in the literature.