In this paper, we study deep fully circulant neural networks, that is deep neural networks in which all weight matrices are circulant ones. We show that these networks outperform the recently introduced deep networks with other types of structured layers. Besides introducing principled techniques for training these models, we provide theoretical guarantees regarding their expressivity. Indeed, we prove that the function space spanned by circulant networks of bounded depth includes the one spanned by dense networks with specific properties on their rank. We conduct a thorough experimental study to compare the performance of deep fully circulant networks with state of the art models based on structured matrices and with dense models. We show that our models achieve better accuracy than their structured alternatives while required 2x fewer weights as the next best approach. Finally we train deep fully circulant networks to build a compact and accurate models on a real world video classification dataset with over 3.8 million training examples.
Despite recent advances in computer vision based on various convolutional architectures, video understanding remains an important challenge. In this work, we present and discuss a top solution for the large-scale video classification (labeling) problem introduced as a Kaggle competition based on the YouTube-8M dataset. We show and compare different approaches to preprocessing, data augmentation, model architectures, and model combination. Our final model is based on a large ensemble of video- and frame-level models but fits into rather limiting hardware constraints. We apply an approach based on knowledge distillation to deal with noisy labels in the original dataset and the recently developed mixup technique to improve the basic models.
Advanced video classification systems decode video frames to derive the necessary texture and motion representations for ingestion and analysis by spatio-temporal deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, when considering visual Internet-of-Things applications, surveillance systems and semantic crawlers of large video repositories, the video capture and the CNN-based semantic analysis parts do not tend to be co-located. This necessitates the transport of compressed video over networks and incurs significant overhead in bandwidth and energy consumption, thereby significantly undermining the deployment potential of such systems. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between the encoding bitrate and the achievable accuracy of CNN-based video classification models that directly ingest AVC/H.264 and HEVC encoded videos. Instead of retaining entire compressed video bitstreams and applying complex optical flow calculations prior to CNN processing, we only retain motion vector and select texture information at significantly-reduced bitrates and apply no additional processing prior to CNN ingestion. Based on three CNN architectures and two action recognition datasets, we achieve 11%-94% saving in bitrate with marginal effect on classification accuracy. A model-based selection between multiple CNNs increases these savings further, to the point where, if up to 7% loss of accuracy can be tolerated, video classification can take place with as little as 3 kbps for the transport of the required compressed video information to the system implementing the CNN models.
Neural networks are prone to adversarial attacks. In general, such attacks deteriorate the quality of the input by either slightly modifying most of its pixels, or by occluding it with a patch. In this paper, we propose a method that keeps the image unchanged and only adds an adversarial framing on the border of the image. We show empirically that our method is able to successfully attack state-of-the-art methods on both image and video classification problems. Notably, the proposed method results in a universal attack which is very fast at test time. Source code can be found at https://github.com/zajaczajac/adv_framing .
We present SlowFast networks for video recognition. Our model involves (i) a Slow pathway, operating at low frame rate, to capture spatial semantics, and (ii) a Fast pathway, operating at high frame rate, to capture motion at fine temporal resolution. The Fast pathway can be made very lightweight by reducing its channel capacity, yet can learn useful temporal information for video recognition. Our models achieve strong performance for both action classification and detection in video, and large improvements are pin-pointed as contributions by our SlowFast concept. We report 79.0% accuracy on the Kinetics dataset without using any pre-training, largely surpassing the previous best results of this kind. On AVA action detection we achieve a new state-of-the-art of 28.3 mAP. Code will be made publicly available.
Computer Vision has been improved significantly in the past few decades. It has enabled machine to do many human tasks. However, the real challenge is in enabling machine to carry out tasks that an average human does not have the skills for. One such challenge that we have tackled in this paper is providing accessibility for deaf individual by providing means of communication with others with the aid of computer vision. Unlike other frequent works focusing on multiple camera, depth camera, electrical glove or visual gloves, we focused on the sole use of RGB which allows everybody to communicate with a deaf individual through their personal devices. This is not a new approach but the lack of realistic large-scale data set prevented recent computer vision trends on video classification in this filed. In this paper, we propose the first large scale ASL data set that covers over 200 signers, signer independent sets, challenging and unconstrained recording conditions and a large class count of 1000 signs. We evaluate baselines from action recognition techniques on the data set. We propose I3D, known from video classifications, as a powerful and suitable architecture for sign language recognition. We also propose new pre-trained model more appropriate for sign language recognition. Finally, We estimate the effect of number of classes and number of training samples on the recognition accuracy.
Videos have become ubiquitous on the Internet. And video analysis can provide lots of information for detecting and recognizing objects as well as help people understand human actions and interactions with the real world. However, facing data as huge as TB level, effective methods should be applied. Recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture has wildly been used on many sequential learning problems such as Language Model, Time-Series Analysis, etc. In this paper, we propose some variations of RNN such as stacked bidirectional LSTM/GRU network with attention mechanism to categorize large-scale video data. We also explore different multimodal fusion methods. Our model combines both visual and audio information on both video and frame level and received great result. Ensemble methods are also applied. Because of its multimodal characteristics, we decide to call this method Deep Multimodal Learning(DML). Our DML-based model was trained on Google Cloud and our own server and was tested in a well-known video classification competition on Kaggle held by Google.
We present AdaFrame, a framework that adaptively selects relevant frames on a per-input basis for fast video recognition. AdaFrame contains a Long Short-Term Memory network augmented with a global memory that provides context information for searching which frames to use over time. Trained with policy gradient methods, AdaFrame generates a prediction, determines which frame to observe next, and computes the utility, i.e., expected future rewards, of seeing more frames at each time step. At testing time, AdaFrame exploits predicted utilities to achieve adaptive lookahead inference such that the overall computational costs are reduced without incurring a decrease in accuracy. Extensive experiments are conducted on two large-scale video benchmarks, FCVID and AvtivityNet. AdaFrame matches the performance of using all frames with only 8.21 and 8.65 frames on FCVID and AvtivityNet, respectively. We further qualitatively demonstrate learned frame usage can indicate the difficulty of making classification decisions; easier samples need fewer frames while harder ones require more, both at instance-level within the same class and at class-level among different categories.