This paper observes the application of the Compressive Sensing in reconstruction of the under-sampled iris images. Iris recognition represents form of biometric identification whose usage in real applications is growing. Compressive Sensing represents a novel form of sparse signal acquisition and recovering when small amount of data is a available. Different sparsity domains are considered and compared using various number of available image pixels. The theory is verified on iris images.
Despite the rise of deep learning in numerous areas of computer vision and image processing, iris recognition has not benefited considerably from these trends so far. Most of the existing research on deep iris recognition is focused on new models for generating discriminative and robust iris representations and relies on methodologies akin to traditional iris recognition pipelines. Hence, the proposed models do not approach iris recognition in an end-to-end manner, but rather use standard heuristic iris segmentation (and unwrapping) techniques to produce normalized inputs for the deep learning models. However, because deep learning is able to model very complex data distributions and nonlinear data changes, an obvious question arises. How important is the use of traditional segmentation methods in a deep learning setting? To answer this question, we present in this paper an empirical analysis of the impact of iris segmentation on the performance of deep learning models using a simple two stage pipeline consisting of a segmentation and a recognition step. We evaluate how the accuracy of segmentation influences recognition performance but also examine if segmentation is needed at all. We use the CASIA Thousand and SBVPI datasets for the experiments and report several interesting findings.
Recent research has explored the possibility of automatically deducing information such as gender, age and race of an individual from their biometric data. While the face modality has been extensively studied in this regard, the iris modality less so. In this paper, we first review the medical literature to establish a biological basis for extracting gender and race cues from the iris. Then, we demonstrate that it is possible to use simple texture descriptors, like BSIF (Binarized Statistical Image Feature) and LBP (Local Binary Patterns), to extract gender and race attributes from an NIR ocular image used in a typical iris recognition system. The proposed method predicts gender and race from a single eye image with an accuracy of 86% and 90%, respectively. In addition, the following analysis are conducted: (a) the role of different parts of the ocular region on attribute prediction; (b) the influence of gender on race prediction, and vice-versa; (c) the impact of eye color on gender and race prediction; (d) the impact of image blur on gender and race prediction; (e) the generalizability of the method across different datasets; and (f) the consistency of prediction performance across the left and right eyes.
This paper proposes the first known to us iris recognition methodology designed specifically for post-mortem samples. We propose to use deep learning-based iris segmentation models to extract highly irregular iris texture areas in post-mortem iris images. We show how to use segmentation masks predicted by neural networks in conventional, Gabor-based iris recognition method, which employs circular approximations of the pupillary and limbic iris boundaries. As a whole, this method allows for a significant improvement in post-mortem iris recognition accuracy over the methods designed only for ante-mortem irises, including the academic OSIRIS and commercial IriCore implementations. The proposed method reaches the EER less than 1% for samples collected up to 10 hours after death, when compared to 16.89% and 5.37% of EER observed for OSIRIS and IriCore, respectively. For samples collected up to 369 hours post-mortem, the proposed method achieves the EER 21.45%, while 33.59% and 25.38% are observed for OSIRIS and IriCore, respectively. Additionally, the method is tested on a database of iris images collected from ophthalmology clinic patients, for which it also offers an advantage over the two remaining methods. This work is the first step towards post-mortem-specific iris recognition, which increases the chances of identification of deceased subjects in forensic investigations. The new database of post-mortem iris images acquired from 42 subjects, as well as the deep learning-based segmentation models are made available along with the paper, to ensure all the results presented in this manuscript are reproducible.
This paper offers three new, open-source, deep learning-based iris segmentation methods, and the methodology how to use irregular segmentation masks in a conventional Gabor-wavelet-based iris recognition. To train and validate the methods, we used a wide spectrum of iris images acquired by different teams and different sensors and offered publicly, including data taken from CASIA-Iris-Interval-v4, BioSec, ND-Iris-0405, UBIRIS, Warsaw-BioBase-Post-Mortem-Iris v2.0 (post-mortem iris images), and ND-TWINS-2009-2010 (iris images acquired from identical twins). This varied training data should increase the generalization capabilities of the proposed segmentation techniques. In database-disjoint training and testing, we show that deep learning-based segmentation outperforms the conventional (OSIRIS) segmentation in terms of Intersection over Union calculated between the obtained results and manually annotated ground-truth. Interestingly, the Gabor-based iris matching is not always better when deep learning-based segmentation is used, and is on par with the method employing Daugman's based segmentation.