We propose a novel method for generating titles for unstructured text documents. We reframe the problem as a sequential question-answering task. A deep neural network is trained on document-title pairs that have the property of decomposability, in which the vocabulary of the document title is a subset of the vocabulary of the document body. To train the model we use a corpus of millions of publicly available document-title pairs: news articles and headlines. We present the results of a randomized double-blind trial in which subjects were unaware of which titles were human or machine-generated. When trained on approximately 1.5 million news articles, the model generates headlines that humans judge to be as good or better than the original human-written headlines in the majority of cases.
Lemmatization aims to reduce the sparse data problem by relating the inflected forms of a word to its dictionary form. Using context can help, both for unseen and ambiguous words. Yet most context-sensitive approaches require full lemma-annotated sentences for training, which may be scarce or unavailable in low-resource languages. In addition (as shown here), in a low-resource setting, a lemmatizer can learn more from $n$ labeled examples of distinct words (types) than from $n$ (contiguous) labeled tokens, since the latter contain far fewer distinct types. To combine the efficiency of type-based learning with the benefits of context, we propose a way to train a context-sensitive lemmatizer with little or no labeled corpus data, using inflection tables from the UniMorph project and raw text examples from Wikipedia that provide sentence contexts for the unambiguous UniMorph examples. Despite these being unambiguous examples, the model successfully generalizes from them, leading to improved results (both overall, and especially on unseen words) in comparison to a baseline that does not use context.
Practitioners apply neural networks to increasingly complex problems in natural language processing, such as syntactic parsing and semantic role labeling that have rich output structures. Many such structured-prediction problems require deterministic constraints on the output values; for example, in sequence-to-sequence syntactic parsing, we require that the sequential outputs encode valid trees. While hidden units might capture such properties, the network is not always able to learn such constraints from the training data alone, and practitioners must then resort to post-processing. In this paper, we present an inference method for neural networks that enforces deterministic constraints on outputs without performing rule-based post-processing or expensive discrete search. Instead, in the spirit of gradient-based training, we enforce constraints with gradient-based inference (GBI): for each input at test-time, we nudge continuous model weights until the network's unconstrained inference procedure generates an output that satisfies the constraints. We study the efficacy of GBI on three tasks with hard constraints: semantic role labeling, syntactic parsing, and sequence transduction. In each case, the algorithm not only satisfies constraints but improves accuracy, even when the underlying network is state-of-the-art.