This paper describes Facebook FAIR's submission to the WMT19 shared news translation task. We participate in two language pairs and four language directions, English <-> German and English <-> Russian. Following our submission from last year, our baseline systems are large BPE-based transformer models trained with the Fairseq sequence modeling toolkit which rely on sampled back-translations. This year we experiment with different bitext data filtering schemes, as well as with adding filtered back-translated data. We also ensemble and fine-tune our models on domain-specific data, then decode using noisy channel model reranking. Our submissions are ranked first in all four directions of the human evaluation campaign. On En->De, our system significantly outperforms other systems as well as human translations. This system improves upon our WMT'18 submission by 4.5 BLEU points.
Users often fail to formulate their complex information needs in a single query. As a consequence, they may need to scan multiple result pages or reformulate their queries, which may be a frustrating experience. Alternatively, systems can improve user satisfaction by proactively asking questions of the users to clarify their information needs. Asking clarifying questions is especially important in conversational systems since they can only return a limited number of (often only one) result(s). In this paper, we formulate the task of asking clarifying questions in open-domain information-seeking conversational systems. To this end, we propose an offline evaluation methodology for the task and collect a dataset, called Qulac, through crowdsourcing. Our dataset is built on top of the TREC Web Track 2009-2012 data and consists of over 10K question-answer pairs for 198 TREC topics with 762 facets. Our experiments on an oracle model demonstrate that asking only one good question leads to over 170% retrieval performance improvement in terms of [email protected], which clearly demonstrates the potential impact of the task. We further propose a retrieval framework consisting of three components: question retrieval, question selection, and document retrieval. In particular, our question selection model takes into account the original query and previous question-answer interactions while selecting the next question. Our model significantly outperforms competitive baselines. To foster research in this area, we have made Qulac publicly available.
Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC), which requires the machine to answer questions based on the given context, has gained increasingly wide attention with the incorporation of various deep learning techniques over the past few years. Although the research of MRC based on deep learning is flourishing, there remains a lack of a comprehensive survey to summarize existing approaches and recent trends, which motivates our work presented in this article. Specifically, we give a thorough review of this research field, covering different aspects including (1) typical MRC tasks: their definitions, differences and representative datasets; (2) general architecture of neural MRC: the main modules and prevalent approaches to each of them; and (3) new trends: some emerging focuses in neural MRC as well as the corresponding challenges. Last but not least, in retrospect of what has been achieved so far, the survey also envisages what the future may hold by discussing the open issues left to be addressed.