With the rapid development of fashion market, the customers' demands of customers for fashion recommendation are rising. In this paper, we aim to investigate a practical problem of fashion recommendation by answering the question "which item should we select to match with the given fashion items and form a compatible outfit". The key to this problem is to estimate the outfit compatibility. Previous works which focus on the compatibility of two items or represent an outfit as a sequence fail to make full use of the complex relations among items in an outfit. To remedy this, we propose to represent an outfit as a graph. In particular, we construct a Fashion Graph, where each node represents a category and each edge represents interaction between two categories. Accordingly, each outfit can be represented as a subgraph by putting items into their corresponding category nodes. To infer the outfit compatibility from such a graph, we propose Node-wise Graph Neural Networks (NGNN) which can better model node interactions and learn better node representations. In NGNN, the node interaction on each edge is different, which is determined by parameters correlated to the two connected nodes. An attention mechanism is utilized to calculate the outfit compatibility score with learned node representations. NGNN can not only be used to model outfit compatibility from visual or textual modality but also from multiple modalities. We conduct experiments on two tasks: (1) Fill-in-the-blank: suggesting an item that matches with existing components of outfit; (2) Compatibility prediction: predicting the compatibility scores of given outfits. Experimental results demonstrate the great superiority of our proposed method over others.
Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have revolutionized the field of graph representation learning through effectively learned node embeddings, and achieved state-of-the-art results in tasks such as node classification and link prediction. However, current GNN methods are inherently flat and do not learn hierarchical representations of graphs---a limitation that is especially problematic for the task of graph classification, where the goal is to predict the label associated with an entire graph. Here we propose DiffPool, a differentiable graph pooling module that can generate hierarchical representations of graphs and can be combined with various graph neural network architectures in an end-to-end fashion. DiffPool learns a differentiable soft cluster assignment for nodes at each layer of a deep GNN, mapping nodes to a set of clusters, which then form the coarsened input for the next GNN layer. Our experimental results show that combining existing GNN methods with DiffPool yields an average improvement of 5-10% accuracy on graph classification benchmarks, compared to all existing pooling approaches, achieving a new state-of-the-art on four out of five benchmark data sets.
We introduce a new scheduling problem in distributed computing that we call the DSMS problem. We are given a set of $k \geq 1$ mobile identical servers that are initially hosted by some processors of the given network. Further, we are given a set of requests that are issued by the processors possibly at any time in an online fashion, and the servers must serve them. A request must be scheduled before the request is served. The delay for scheduling a request is the time taken since the request is issued until it is scheduled. The goal is to minimize the average delay. Navigating mobile servers in a large-scale distributed system needs a scalable location service. We devise the distributed GNN protocol, a novel linked-reversal-based protocol for the DSMS problem that works on overlay trees. We prove that GNN is a starvation-free protocol that correctly integrates locating the servers and synchronizing the concurrent access to the servers despite asynchrony. Further, we analyze the GNN protocol for one-shot executions where all requests are simultaneously issued. We show that when running the GNN protocol on top of a special family of tree topologies---known as hierarchically well-separated trees (HSTs)---we obtain a randomized distributed protocol with an expected competitive ratio of $O(\log n)$ on general network topologies for the DSMS problem where $n$ is the number of processors in the given network. From a technical point of view, the main result of our paper shows that the GNN protocol optimally solves the DSMS problem on HSTs for one-shot executions. Our results hold even if communication is asynchronous.
Building agents to interact with the web would allow for significant improvements in knowledge understanding and representation learning. However, web navigation tasks are difficult for current deep reinforcement learning (RL) models due to the large discrete action space and the varying number of actions between the states. In this work, we introduce DOM-Q-NET, a novel architecture for RL-based web navigation to address both of these problems. It parametrizes Q functions with separate networks for different action categories: clicking a DOM element and typing a string input. Our model utilizes a graph neural network to represent the tree-structured HTML of a standard web page. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model on the MiniWoB environment where we can match or outperform existing work without the use of expert demonstrations. Furthermore, we show 2x improvements in sample efficiency when training in the multi-task setting, allowing our model to transfer learned behaviours across tasks.
In recent years, Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), which can naturally integrate node information and topological structure, have been demonstrated to be powerful in learning on graph data. These advantages of GNNs provide great potential to advance social recommendation since data in social recommender systems can be represented as user-user social graph and user-item graph; and learning latent factors of users and items is the key. However, building social recommender systems based on GNNs faces challenges. For example, the user-item graph encodes both interactions and their associated opinions; social relations have heterogeneous strengths; users involve in two graphs (e.g., the user-user social graph and the user-item graph). To address the three aforementioned challenges simultaneously, in this paper, we present a novel graph neural network framework (GraphRec) for social recommendations. In particular, we provide a principled approach to jointly capture interactions and opinions in the user-item graph and propose the framework GraphRec, which coherently models two graphs and heterogeneous strengths. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework GraphRec.
The era of data deluge has sparked the interest in graph-based learning methods in a number of disciplines such as sociology, biology, neuroscience, or engineering. In this paper, we introduce a graph recurrent neural network (GRNN) for scalable semi-supervised learning from multi-relational data. Key aspects of the novel GRNN architecture are the use of multi-relational graphs, the dynamic adaptation to the different relations via learnable weights, and the consideration of graph-based regularizers to promote smoothness and alleviate over-parametrization. Our ultimate goal is to design a powerful learning architecture able to: discover complex and highly non-linear data associations, combine (and select) multiple types of relations, and scale gracefully with respect to the size of the graph. Numerical tests with real data sets corroborate the design goals and illustrate the performance gains relative to competing alternatives.