Studies show that Deep Neural Network (DNN)-based image classification models are vulnerable to maliciously constructed adversarial examples. However, little effort has been made to investigate how DNN-based image retrieval models are affected by such attacks. In this paper, we introduce Unsupervised Adversarial Attacks with Generative Adversarial Networks (UAA-GAN) to attack deep feature-based image retrieval systems. UAA-GAN is an unsupervised learning model that requires only a small amount of unlabeled data for training. Once trained, it produces query-specific perturbations for query images to form adversarial queries. The core idea is to ensure that the attached perturbation is barely perceptible to human yet effective in pushing the query away from its original position in the deep feature space. UAA-GAN works with various application scenarios that are based on deep features, including image retrieval, person Re-ID and face search. Empirical results show that UAA-GAN cripples retrieval performance without significant visual changes in the query images. UAA-GAN generated adversarial examples are less distinguishable because they tend to incorporate subtle perturbations in textured or salient areas of the images, such as key body parts of human, dominant structural patterns/textures or edges, rather than in visually insignificant areas (e.g., background and sky). Such tendency indicates that the model indeed learned how to toy with both image retrieval systems and human eyes.
Indoor image features extraction is a fundamental problem in multiple fields such as image processing, pattern recognition, robotics and so on. Nevertheless, most of the existing feature extraction methods, which extract features based on pixels, color, shape/object parts or objects on images, suffer from limited capabilities in describing semantic information (e.g., object association). These techniques, therefore, involve undesired classification performance. To tackle this issue, we propose the notion of high-level semantic features and design four steps to extract them. Specifically, we first construct the objects pattern dictionary through extracting raw objects in the images, and then retrieve and extract semantic objects from the objects pattern dictionary. We finally extract our high-level semantic features based on the calculated probability and delta parameter. Experiments on three publicly available datasets (MIT-67, Scene15 and NYU V1) show that our feature extraction approach outperforms state-of-the-art feature extraction methods for indoor image classification, given a lower dimension of our features than those methods.
We present ADMM-Softmax, an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for solving multinomial logistic regression (MLR) problems. Our method is geared toward supervised classification tasks with many examples and features. It decouples the nonlinear optimization problem in MLR into three steps that can be solved efficiently. In particular, each iteration of ADMM-Softmax consists of a linear least-squares problem, a set of independent small-scale smooth, convex problems, and a trivial dual variable update. Solution of the least-squares problem can be be accelerated by pre-computing a factorization or preconditioner, and the separability in the smooth, convex problem can be easily parallelized across examples. For two image classification problems, we demonstrate that ADMM-Softmax leads to improved generalization compared to a Newton-Krylov, a quasi Newton, and a stochastic gradient descent method.