Machine learning-based data-driven modeling can be computationally efficient solutions of time-dependent subsurface geophysical systems. In this work, our previous approach of conditional generative adversarial networks (cGAN) developed for steady-state problems with heterogeneous materials is extended to time-dependent problems by adopting the concept of continuous cGAN (CcGAN). The CcGAN that can condition continuous variables in the cGAN framework is developed to incorporate the time domain through either element-wise addition or conditional batch normalization. As a demonstration case, the transient response of the coupled poroelastic process is studied in two different permeability fields: Zinn \& Harvey transformation and a bimodal transformation. The proposed CcGAN uses heterogeneous permeability fields as input parameters while pressure and displacement fields over time are model output. Our results show that the model provides sufficient accuracy with computational speed-up. This robust framework will enable us to perform real-time reservoir management and robust uncertainty quantification in realistic problems.

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Generalized linear mixed models are useful in studying hierarchical data with possibly non-Gaussian responses. However, the intractability of likelihood functions poses challenges for estimation. We develop a new method suitable for this problem, called imputation maximization stochastic approximation (IMSA). For each iteration, IMSA first imputes latent variables/random effects, then maximizes over the complete data likelihood, and finally moves the estimate towards the new maximizer while preserving a proportion of the previous value. The limiting point of IMSA satisfies a self-consistency property and can be less biased in finite samples than the maximum likelihood estimator solved by score-equation based stochastic approximation (ScoreSA). Numerically, IMSA can also be advantageous over ScoreSA in achieving more stable convergence and respecting the parameter ranges under various transformations such as nonnegative variance components. This is corroborated through our simulation studies where IMSA consistently outperforms ScoreSA.

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In high energy physics (HEP), jets are collections of correlated particles produced ubiquitously in particle collisions such as those at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Machine learning (ML)-based generative models, such as generative adversarial networks (GANs), have the potential to significantly accelerate LHC jet simulations. However, despite jets having a natural representation as a set of particles in momentum-space, a.k.a. a particle cloud, there exist no generative models applied to such a dataset. In this work, we introduce a new particle cloud dataset (JetNet), and apply to it existing point cloud GANs. Results are evaluated using (1) 1-Wasserstein distances between high- and low-level feature distributions, (2) a newly developed Fr\'{e}chet ParticleNet Distance, and (3) the coverage and (4) minimum matching distance metrics. Existing GANs are found to be inadequate for physics applications, hence we develop a new message passing GAN (MPGAN), which outperforms existing point cloud GANs on virtually every metric and shows promise for use in HEP. We propose JetNet as a novel point-cloud-style dataset for the ML community to experiment with, and set MPGAN as a benchmark to improve upon for future generative models. Additionally, to facilitate research and improve accessibility and reproducibility in this area, we release the open-source JetNet Python package with interfaces for particle cloud datasets, implementations for evaluation and loss metrics, and more tools for ML in HEP development.

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Several recent end-to-end text-to-speech (TTS) models enabling single-stage training and parallel sampling have been proposed, but their sample quality does not match that of two-stage TTS systems. In this work, we present a parallel end-to-end TTS method that generates more natural sounding audio than current two-stage models. Our method adopts variational inference augmented with normalizing flows and an adversarial training process, which improves the expressive power of generative modeling. We also propose a stochastic duration predictor to synthesize speech with diverse rhythms from input text. With the uncertainty modeling over latent variables and the stochastic duration predictor, our method expresses the natural one-to-many relationship in which a text input can be spoken in multiple ways with different pitches and rhythms. A subjective human evaluation (mean opinion score, or MOS) on the LJ Speech, a single speaker dataset, shows that our method outperforms the best publicly available TTS systems and achieves a MOS comparable to ground truth.

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Recent advances in maximizing mutual information (MI) between the source and target have demonstrated its effectiveness in text generation. However, previous works paid little attention to modeling the backward network of MI (i.e., dependency from the target to the source), which is crucial to the tightness of the variational information maximization lower bound. In this paper, we propose Adversarial Mutual Information (AMI): a text generation framework which is formed as a novel saddle point (min-max) optimization aiming to identify joint interactions between the source and target. Within this framework, the forward and backward networks are able to iteratively promote or demote each other's generated instances by comparing the real and synthetic data distributions. We also develop a latent noise sampling strategy that leverages random variations at the high-level semantic space to enhance the long term dependency in the generation process. Extensive experiments based on different text generation tasks demonstrate that the proposed AMI framework can significantly outperform several strong baselines, and we also show that AMI has potential to lead to a tighter lower bound of maximum mutual information for the variational information maximization problem.

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Previous works \citep{donahue2018adversarial, engel2019gansynth} have found that generating coherent raw audio waveforms with GANs is challenging. In this paper, we show that it is possible to train GANs reliably to generate high quality coherent waveforms by introducing a set of architectural changes and simple training techniques. Subjective evaluation metric (Mean Opinion Score, or MOS) shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach for high quality mel-spectrogram inversion. To establish the generality of the proposed techniques, we show qualitative results of our model in speech synthesis, music domain translation and unconditional music synthesis. We evaluate the various components of the model through ablation studies and suggest a set of guidelines to design general purpose discriminators and generators for conditional sequence synthesis tasks. Our model is non-autoregressive, fully convolutional, with significantly fewer parameters than competing models and generalizes to unseen speakers for mel-spectrogram inversion. Our pytorch implementation runs at more than 100x faster than realtime on GTX 1080Ti GPU and more than 2x faster than real-time on CPU, without any hardware specific optimization tricks. Blog post with samples and accompanying code coming soon.

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Most conditional generation tasks expect diverse outputs given a single conditional context. However, conditional generative adversarial networks (cGANs) often focus on the prior conditional information and ignore the input noise vectors, which contribute to the output variations. Recent attempts to resolve the mode collapse issue for cGANs are usually task-specific and computationally expensive. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective regularization term to address the mode collapse issue for cGANs. The proposed method explicitly maximizes the ratio of the distance between generated images with respect to the corresponding latent codes, thus encouraging the generators to explore more minor modes during training. This mode seeking regularization term is readily applicable to various conditional generation tasks without imposing training overhead or modifying the original network structures. We validate the proposed algorithm on three conditional image synthesis tasks including categorical generation, image-to-image translation, and text-to-image synthesis with different baseline models. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization method for improving diversity without loss of quality.

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The prevalence of networked sensors and actuators in many real-world systems such as smart buildings, factories, power plants, and data centers generate substantial amounts of multivariate time series data for these systems. The rich sensor data can be continuously monitored for intrusion events through anomaly detection. However, conventional threshold-based anomaly detection methods are inadequate due to the dynamic complexities of these systems, while supervised machine learning methods are unable to exploit the large amounts of data due to the lack of labeled data. On the other hand, current unsupervised machine learning approaches have not fully exploited the spatial-temporal correlation and other dependencies amongst the multiple variables (sensors/actuators) in the system for detecting anomalies. In this work, we propose an unsupervised multivariate anomaly detection method based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Instead of treating each data stream independently, our proposed MAD-GAN framework considers the entire variable set concurrently to capture the latent interactions amongst the variables. We also fully exploit both the generator and discriminator produced by the GAN, using a novel anomaly score called DR-score to detect anomalies by discrimination and reconstruction. We have tested our proposed MAD-GAN using two recent datasets collected from real-world CPS: the Secure Water Treatment (SWaT) and the Water Distribution (WADI) datasets. Our experimental results showed that the proposed MAD-GAN is effective in reporting anomalies caused by various cyber-intrusions compared in these complex real-world systems.

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An important problem in geostatistics is to build models of the subsurface of the Earth given physical measurements at sparse spatial locations. Typically, this is done using spatial interpolation methods or by reproducing patterns from a reference image. However, these algorithms fail to produce realistic patterns and do not exhibit the wide range of uncertainty inherent in the prediction of geology. In this paper, we show how semantic inpainting with Generative Adversarial Networks can be used to generate varied realizations of geology which honor physical measurements while matching the expected geological patterns. In contrast to other algorithms, our method scales well with the number of data points and mimics a distribution of patterns as opposed to a single pattern or image. The generated conditional samples are state of the art.

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Quantum machine learning is expected to be one of the first potential general-purpose applications of near-term quantum devices. A major recent breakthrough in classical machine learning is the notion of generative adversarial training, where the gradients of a discriminator model are used to train a separate generative model. In this work and a companion paper, we extend adversarial training to the quantum domain and show how to construct generative adversarial networks using quantum circuits. Furthermore, we also show how to compute gradients -- a key element in generative adversarial network training -- using another quantum circuit. We give an example of a simple practical circuit ansatz to parametrize quantum machine learning models and perform a simple numerical experiment to demonstrate that quantum generative adversarial networks can be trained successfully.

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In this paper, we propose an improved quantitative evaluation framework for Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) on generating domain-specific images, where we improve conventional evaluation methods on two levels: the feature representation and the evaluation metric. Unlike most existing evaluation frameworks which transfer the representation of ImageNet inception model to map images onto the feature space, our framework uses a specialized encoder to acquire fine-grained domain-specific representation. Moreover, for datasets with multiple classes, we propose Class-Aware Frechet Distance (CAFD), which employs a Gaussian mixture model on the feature space to better fit the multi-manifold feature distribution. Experiments and analysis on both the feature level and the image level were conducted to demonstrate improvements of our proposed framework over the recently proposed state-of-the-art FID method. To our best knowledge, we are the first to provide counter examples where FID gives inconsistent results with human judgments. It is shown in the experiments that our framework is able to overcome the shortness of FID and improves robustness. Code will be made available.

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