Community detection is one of the most important methodological fields of network science, and one which has attracted a significant amount of attention over the past decades. This area deals with the automated division of a network into fundamental building blocks, with the objective of providing a summary of its large-scale structure. Despite its importance and widespread adoption, there is a noticeable gap between what is considered the state-of-the-art and the methods that are actually used in practice in a variety of fields. Here we attempt to address this discrepancy by dividing existing methods according to whether they have a "descriptive" or an "inferential" goal. While descriptive methods find patterns in networks based on intuitive notions of community structure, inferential methods articulate a precise generative model, and attempt to fit it to data. In this way, they are able to provide insights into the mechanisms of network formation, and separate structure from randomness in a manner supported by statistical evidence. We review how employing descriptive methods with inferential aims is riddled with pitfalls and misleading answers, and thus should be in general avoided. We argue that inferential methods are more typically aligned with clearer scientific questions, yield more robust results, and should be in general preferred. We attempt to dispel some myths and half-truths often believed when community detection is employed in practice, in an effort to improve both the use of such methods as well as the interpretation of their results.

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在网络中发现社区(称为社区检测/发现)是网络科学中的一个基本问题,在过去的几十年中引起了很多关注。 近年来,随着对大数据的大量研究,另一个相关但又不同的问题(称为社区搜索)旨在寻找包含查询节点的最有可能的社区,这已引起了学术界和工业界的广泛关注,它是社区检测问题的依赖查询的变体。

The increasing automation in many areas of the Industry expressly demands to design efficient machine-learning solutions for the detection of abnormal events. With the ubiquitous deployment of sensors monitoring nearly continuously the health of complex infrastructures, anomaly detection can now rely on measurements sampled at a very high frequency, providing a very rich representation of the phenomenon under surveillance. In order to exploit fully the information thus collected, the observations cannot be treated as multivariate data anymore and a functional analysis approach is required. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the performance of recent techniques for anomaly detection in the functional setup on real datasets. After an overview of the state-of-the-art and a visual-descriptive study, a variety of anomaly detection methods are compared. While taxonomies of abnormalities (e.g. shape, location) in the functional setup are documented in the literature, assigning a specific type to the identified anomalies appears to be a challenging task. Thus, strengths and weaknesses of the existing approaches are benchmarked in view of these highlighted types in a simulation study. Anomaly detection methods are next evaluated on two datasets, related to the monitoring of helicopters in flight and to the spectrometry of construction materials namely. The benchmark analysis is concluded by recommendation guidance for practitioners.

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This paper is the first to explore an automatic way to detect bias in deep convolutional neural networks by simply looking at their weights. Furthermore, it is also a step towards understanding neural networks and how they work. We show that it is indeed possible to know if a model is biased or not simply by looking at its weights, without the model inference for an specific input. We analyze how bias is encoded in the weights of deep networks through a toy example using the Colored MNIST database and we also provide a realistic case study in gender detection from face images using state-of-the-art methods and experimental resources. To do so, we generated two databases with 36K and 48K biased models each. In the MNIST models we were able to detect whether they presented a strong or low bias with more than 99% accuracy, and we were also able to classify between four levels of bias with more than 70% accuracy. For the face models, we achieved 90% accuracy in distinguishing between models biased towards Asian, Black, or Caucasian ethnicity.

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Community detection is a fundamental and important issue in network science, but there are only a few community detection algorithms based on graph neural networks, among which unsupervised algorithms are almost blank. By fusing the high-order modularity information with network features, this paper proposes a Variational Graph AutoEncoder Reconstruction based community detection VGAER for the first time, and gives its non-probabilistic version. They do not need any prior information. We have carefully designed corresponding input features, decoder, and downstream tasks based on the community detection task and these designs are concise, natural, and perform well (NMI values under our design are improved by 59.1% - 565.9%). Based on a series of experiments with wide range of datasets and advanced methods, VGAER has achieved superior performance and shows strong competitiveness and potential with a simpler design. Finally, we report the results of algorithm convergence analysis and t-SNE visualization, which clearly depicted the stable performance and powerful network modularity ability of VGAER. Our codes are available at https://github.com/qcydm/VGAER.

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In the past decade, the social networks platforms and micro-blogging sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Weibo have become an integral part of our day-to-day activities and is widely used all over the world by billions of users to share their views and circulate information in the form of messages, pictures, and videos. These are even used by government agencies to spread important information through their verified Facebook accounts and official Twitter handles, as they can reach a huge population within a limited time window. However, many deceptive activities like propaganda and rumor can mislead users on a daily basis. In these COVID times, fake news and rumors are very prevalent and are shared in a huge number which has created chaos in this tough time. And hence, the need for Fake News Detection in the present scenario is inevitable. In this paper, we survey the recent literature about different approaches to detect fake news over the Internet. In particular, we firstly discuss fake news and the various terms related to it that have been considered in the literature. Secondly, we highlight the various publicly available datasets and various online tools that are available and can debunk Fake News in real-time. Thirdly, we describe fake news detection methods based on two broader areas i.e., its content and the social context. Finally, we provide a comparison of various techniques that are used to debunk fake news.

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Community detection, a fundamental task for network analysis, aims to partition a network into multiple sub-structures to help reveal their latent functions. Community detection has been extensively studied in and broadly applied to many real-world network problems. Classical approaches to community detection typically utilize probabilistic graphical models and adopt a variety of prior knowledge to infer community structures. As the problems that network methods try to solve and the network data to be analyzed become increasingly more sophisticated, new approaches have also been proposed and developed, particularly those that utilize deep learning and convert networked data into low dimensional representation. Despite all the recent advancement, there is still a lack of insightful understanding of the theoretical and methodological underpinning of community detection, which will be critically important for future development of the area of network analysis. In this paper, we develop and present a unified architecture of network community-finding methods to characterize the state-of-the-art of the field of community detection. Specifically, we provide a comprehensive review of the existing community detection methods and introduce a new taxonomy that divides the existing methods into two categories, namely probabilistic graphical model and deep learning. We then discuss in detail the main idea behind each method in the two categories. Furthermore, to promote future development of community detection, we release several benchmark datasets from several problem domains and highlight their applications to various network analysis tasks. We conclude with discussions of the challenges of the field and suggestions of possible directions for future research.

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A community reveals the features and connections of its members that are different from those in other communities in a network. Detecting communities is of great significance in network analysis. Despite the classical spectral clustering and statistical inference methods, we notice a significant development of deep learning techniques for community detection in recent years with their advantages in handling high dimensional network data. Hence, a comprehensive overview of community detection's latest progress through deep learning is timely to both academics and practitioners. This survey devises and proposes a new taxonomy covering different categories of the state-of-the-art methods, including deep learning-based models upon deep neural networks, deep nonnegative matrix factorization and deep sparse filtering. The main category, i.e., deep neural networks, is further divided into convolutional networks, graph attention networks, generative adversarial networks and autoencoders. The survey also summarizes the popular benchmark data sets, model evaluation metrics, and open-source implementations to address experimentation settings. We then discuss the practical applications of community detection in various domains and point to implementation scenarios. Finally, we outline future directions by suggesting challenging topics in this fast-growing deep learning field.

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Recent advances on 3D object detection heavily rely on how the 3D data are represented, \emph{i.e.}, voxel-based or point-based representation. Many existing high performance 3D detectors are point-based because this structure can better retain precise point positions. Nevertheless, point-level features lead to high computation overheads due to unordered storage. In contrast, the voxel-based structure is better suited for feature extraction but often yields lower accuracy because the input data are divided into grids. In this paper, we take a slightly different viewpoint -- we find that precise positioning of raw points is not essential for high performance 3D object detection and that the coarse voxel granularity can also offer sufficient detection accuracy. Bearing this view in mind, we devise a simple but effective voxel-based framework, named Voxel R-CNN. By taking full advantage of voxel features in a two stage approach, our method achieves comparable detection accuracy with state-of-the-art point-based models, but at a fraction of the computation cost. Voxel R-CNN consists of a 3D backbone network, a 2D bird-eye-view (BEV) Region Proposal Network and a detect head. A voxel RoI pooling is devised to extract RoI features directly from voxel features for further refinement. Extensive experiments are conducted on the widely used KITTI Dataset and the more recent Waymo Open Dataset. Our results show that compared to existing voxel-based methods, Voxel R-CNN delivers a higher detection accuracy while maintaining a real-time frame processing rate, \emph{i.e}., at a speed of 25 FPS on an NVIDIA RTX 2080 Ti GPU. The code will be make available soon.

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Detection and recognition of text in natural images are two main problems in the field of computer vision that have a wide variety of applications in analysis of sports videos, autonomous driving, industrial automation, to name a few. They face common challenging problems that are factors in how text is represented and affected by several environmental conditions. The current state-of-the-art scene text detection and/or recognition methods have exploited the witnessed advancement in deep learning architectures and reported a superior accuracy on benchmark datasets when tackling multi-resolution and multi-oriented text. However, there are still several remaining challenges affecting text in the wild images that cause existing methods to underperform due to there models are not able to generalize to unseen data and the insufficient labeled data. Thus, unlike previous surveys in this field, the objectives of this survey are as follows: first, offering the reader not only a review on the recent advancement in scene text detection and recognition, but also presenting the results of conducting extensive experiments using a unified evaluation framework that assesses pre-trained models of the selected methods on challenging cases, and applies the same evaluation criteria on these techniques. Second, identifying several existing challenges for detecting or recognizing text in the wild images, namely, in-plane-rotation, multi-oriented and multi-resolution text, perspective distortion, illumination reflection, partial occlusion, complex fonts, and special characters. Finally, the paper also presents insight into the potential research directions in this field to address some of the mentioned challenges that are still encountering scene text detection and recognition techniques.

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Deep learning has been successfully applied to solve various complex problems ranging from big data analytics to computer vision and human-level control. Deep learning advances however have also been employed to create software that can cause threats to privacy, democracy and national security. One of those deep learning-powered applications recently emerged is "deepfake". Deepfake algorithms can create fake images and videos that humans cannot distinguish them from authentic ones. The proposal of technologies that can automatically detect and assess the integrity of digital visual media is therefore indispensable. This paper presents a survey of algorithms used to create deepfakes and, more importantly, methods proposed to detect deepfakes in the literature to date. We present extensive discussions on challenges, research trends and directions related to deepfake technologies. By reviewing the background of deepfakes and state-of-the-art deepfake detection methods, this study provides a comprehensive overview of deepfake techniques and facilitates the development of new and more robust methods to deal with the increasingly challenging deepfakes.

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Deep learning based models have had great success in object detection, but the state of the art models have not yet been widely applied to biological image data. We apply for the first time an object detection model previously used on natural images to identify cells and recognize their stages in brightfield microscopy images of malaria-infected blood. Many micro-organisms like malaria parasites are still studied by expert manual inspection and hand counting. This type of object detection task is challenging due to factors like variations in cell shape, density, and color, and uncertainty of some cell classes. In addition, annotated data useful for training is scarce, and the class distribution is inherently highly imbalanced due to the dominance of uninfected red blood cells. We use Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), one of the top performing object detection models in recent years, pre-trained on ImageNet but fine tuned with our data, and compare it to a baseline, which is based on a traditional approach consisting of cell segmentation, extraction of several single-cell features, and classification using random forests. To conduct our initial study, we collect and label a dataset of 1300 fields of view consisting of around 100,000 individual cells. We demonstrate that Faster R-CNN outperforms our baseline and put the results in context of human performance.

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