In this paper, we address the problem of searching for semantically similar images from a large database. We present a compact coding approach, supervised quantization. Our approach simultaneously learns feature selection that linearly transforms the database points into a low-dimensional discriminative subspace, and quantizes the data points in the transformed space. The optimization criterion is that the quantized points not only approximate the transformed points accurately, but also are semantically separable: the points belonging to a class lie in a cluster that is not overlapped with other clusters corresponding to other classes, which is formulated as a classification problem. The experiments on several standard datasets show the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the art supervised hashing and unsupervised quantization algorithms.
Different types of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been applied to detect cancerous lung nodules from computed tomography (CT) scans. However, the size of a nodule is very diverse and can range anywhere between 3 and 30 millimeters. The high variation of nodule sizes makes classifying them a difficult and challenging task. In this study, we propose a novel CNN architecture called Gated-Dilated (GD) Networks to classify nodules as malignant or benign. Unlike previous studies, the GD network uses multiple dilated convolutions instead of max-poolings to capture the scale variations. Moreover, the GD network has a Context-Aware sub-network that analyzes the input features and guides the features to a suitable dilated convolution. We evaluated the proposed network on more than 1,000 CT scans from the LIDC-LDRI dataset. Our proposed network outperforms baseline models including conventional CNNs, Resnet, and Densenet, with an AUC of >0.95. Compared to the baseline models, the GD network improves the classification accuracies of mid-range sized nodules. Furthermore, we observe a relationship between the size of the nodule and the attention signal generated by the Context-Aware sub-network, which validates our new network architecture.
Knowledge Graph Embedding methods aim at representing entities and relations in a knowledge base as points or vectors in a continuous vector space. Several approaches using embeddings have shown promising results on tasks such as link prediction, entity recommendation, question answering, and triplet classification. However, only a few methods can compute low-dimensional embeddings of very large knowledge bases. In this paper, we propose KG2Vec, a novel approach to Knowledge Graph Embedding based on the skip-gram model. Instead of using a predefined scoring function, we learn it relying on Long Short-Term Memories. We evaluated the goodness of our embeddings on knowledge graph completion and show that KG2Vec is comparable to the quality of the scalable state-of-the-art approaches and can process large graphs by parsing more than a hundred million triples in less than 6 hours on common hardware.
Knowledge graphs, on top of entities and their relationships, contain another important element: literals. Literals encode interesting properties (e.g. the height) of entities that are not captured by links between entities alone. Most of the existing work on embedding (or latent feature) based knowledge graph modeling focuses mainly on the relations between entities. In this work, we study the effect of incorporating literal information into existing knowledge graph models. Our approach, which we name LiteralE, is an extension that can be plugged into existing latent feature methods. LiteralE merges entity embeddings with their literal information using a learnable, parametrized function, such as a simple linear or nonlinear transformation, or a multilayer neural network. We extend several popular embedding models using LiteralE and evaluate the performance on the task of link prediction. Despite its simplicity, LiteralE proves to be an effective way to incorporate literal information into existing embedding based models, improving their performance on different standard datasets, which we augmented with their literals and provide as testbed for further research.
This paper shows that a simple baseline based on a Bag-of-Words (BoW) representation learns surprisingly good knowledge graph embeddings. By casting knowledge base completion and question answering as supervised classification problems, we observe that modeling co-occurences of entities and relations leads to state-of-the-art performance with a training time of a few minutes using the open sourced library fastText.