已有账号? 登录

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have achieved great success in generating realistic images. Most of these are conditional models, although acquisition of class labels is expensive and time-consuming in practice. To reduce the dependence on labeled data, we propose an un-conditional generative adversarial model, called K-Means-GAN (KM-GAN), which incorporates the idea of updating centers in K-Means into GANs. Specifically, we redesign the framework of GANs by applying K-Means on the features extracted from the discriminator. With obtained labels from K-Means, we propose new objective functions from the perspective of deep metric learning (DML). Distinct from previous works, the discriminator is treated as a feature extractor rather than a classifier in KM-GAN, meanwhile utilization of K-Means makes features of the discriminator more representative. Experiments are conducted on various datasets, such as MNIST, Fashion-10, CIFAR-10 and CelebA, and show that the quality of samples generated by KM-GAN is comparable to some conditional generative adversarial models.

点赞 1
阅读1+

We carry out experiments with deep learning models of summarization across the domains of news, personal stories, meetings, and medical articles in order to understand how content selection is performed. We find that many sophisticated features of state of the art extractive summarizers do not improve performance over simpler models. These results suggest that it is easier to create a summarizer for a new domain than previous work suggests and bring into question the benefit of deep learning models for summarization for those domains that do have massive datasets (i.e., news). At the same time, they suggest important questions for new research in summarization; namely, new forms of sentence representations or external knowledge sources are needed that are better suited to the summarization task.

点赞 0
阅读0+

We consider the problem of learning from sparse and underspecified rewards, where an agent receives a complex input, such as a natural language instruction, and needs to generate a complex response, such as an action sequence, while only receiving binary success-failure feedback. Such success-failure rewards are often underspecified: they do not distinguish between purposeful and accidental success. Generalization from underspecified rewards hinges on discounting spurious trajectories that attain accidental success, while learning from sparse feedback requires effective exploration. We address exploration by using a mode covering direction of KL divergence to collect a diverse set of successful trajectories, followed by a mode seeking KL divergence to train a robust policy. We propose Meta Reward Learning (MeRL) to construct an auxiliary reward function that provides more refined feedback for learning. The parameters of the auxiliary reward function are optimized with respect to the validation performance of a trained policy. The MeRL approach outperforms our alternative reward learning technique based on Bayesian Optimization, and achieves the state-of-the-art on weakly-supervised semantic parsing. It improves previous work by 1.2% and 2.4% on WikiTableQuestions and WikiSQL datasets respectively.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Large-scale behavioral datasets enable researchers to use complex machine learning algorithms to better predict human behavior, yet this increased predictive power does not always lead to a better understanding of the behavior in question. In this paper, we outline a data-driven, iterative procedure that allows cognitive scientists to use machine learning to generate models that are both interpretable and accurate. We demonstrate this method in the domain of moral decision-making, where standard experimental approaches often identify relevant principles that influence human judgments, but fail to generalize these findings to "real world" situations that place these principles in conflict. The recently released Moral Machine dataset allows us to build a powerful model that can predict the outcomes of these conflicts while remaining simple enough to explain the basis behind human decisions.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Sentiment analysis is a task that may suffer from a lack of data in certain cases, as the datasets are often generated and annotated by humans. In cases where data is inadequate for training discriminative models, generate models may aid training via data augmentation. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are one such model that has advanced the state of the art in several tasks, including as image and text generation. In this paper, I train GAN models on low resource datasets, then use them for the purpose of data augmentation towards improving sentiment classifier generalization. Given the constraints of limited data, I explore various techniques to train the GAN models. I also present an analysis of the quality of generated GAN data as more training data for the GAN is made available. In this analysis, the generated data is evaluated as a test set (against a model trained on real data points) as well as a training set to train classification models. Finally, I also conduct a visual analysis by projecting the generated and the real data into a two-dimensional space using the t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) and their variants have experienced significant attention and have become the de facto methods for learning graph representations. GCNs derive inspiration primarily from recent deep learning approaches, and as a result, may inherit unnecessary complexity and redundant computation. In this paper, we reduce this excess complexity through successively removing nonlinearities and collapsing weight matrices between consecutive layers. We theoretically analyze the resulting linear model and show that it corresponds to a fixed low-pass filter followed by a linear classifier. Notably, our experimental evaluation demonstrates that these simplifications do not negatively impact accuracy in many downstream applications. Moreover, the resulting model scales to larger datasets, is naturally interpretable, and yields up to two orders of magnitude speedup over FastGCN.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Learning low-dimensional embeddings of knowledge graphs is a powerful approach used to predict unobserved or missing edges between entities. However, an open challenge in this area is developing techniques that can go beyond simple edge prediction and handle more complex logical queries, which might involve multiple unobserved edges, entities, and variables. For instance, given an incomplete biological knowledge graph, we might want to predict "em what drugs are likely to target proteins involved with both diseases X and Y?" -- a query that requires reasoning about all possible proteins that {\em might} interact with diseases X and Y. Here we introduce a framework to efficiently make predictions about conjunctive logical queries -- a flexible but tractable subset of first-order logic -- on incomplete knowledge graphs. In our approach, we embed graph nodes in a low-dimensional space and represent logical operators as learned geometric operations (e.g., translation, rotation) in this embedding space. By performing logical operations within a low-dimensional embedding space, our approach achieves a time complexity that is linear in the number of query variables, compared to the exponential complexity required by a naive enumeration-based approach. We demonstrate the utility of this framework in two application studies on real-world datasets with millions of relations: predicting logical relationships in a network of drug-gene-disease interactions and in a graph-based representation of social interactions derived from a popular web forum.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Environmental air quality affects people's life, obtaining real-time and accurate environmental air quality has a profound guiding significance for the development of social activities. At present, environmental air quality measurement mainly adopts the method that setting air quality detector at specific monitoring points in cities and timing sampling analysis, which is easy to be restricted by time and space factors. Some air quality measurement algorithms related to deep learning mostly adopt a single convolutional neural network to train the whole image, which will ignore the difference of different parts of the image. In this paper, we propose a method for air quality measurement based on double-channel convolutional neural network ensemble learning to solve the problem of feature extraction for different parts of environmental images. Our method mainly includes two aspects: ensemble learning of double-channel convolutional neural network and self-learning weighted feature fusion. We constructed a double-channel convolutional neural network, used each channel to train different parts of the environment images for feature extraction. We propose a feature weight self-learning method, which weights and concatenates the extracted feature vectors, and uses the fused feature vectors to measure air quality. Our method can be applied to the two tasks of air quality grade measurement and air quality index (AQI) measurement. Moreover, we build an environmental image dataset of random time and location condition. The experiments show that our method can achieve nearly 82% average accuracy and a small average absolute error on our test set. At the same time, through contrast experiment, we proved that our proposed method obtained considerable increase in performance compared with single channel convolutional neural network air quality measurements.

点赞 0
阅读0+

We provide a framework to approximate the 2-Wasserstein distance and the optimal transport map, amenable to efficient training as well as statistical and geometric analysis. With the quadratic cost and considering the Kantorovich dual form of the optimal transportation problem, the Brenier theorem states that the optimal potential function is convex and the optimal transport map is the gradient of the optimal potential function. Using this geometric structure, we restrict the optimization problem to different parametrized classes of convex functions and pay special attention to the class of input-convex neural networks. We analyze the statistical generalization and the discriminative power of the resulting approximate metric, and we prove a restricted moment-matching property for the approximate optimal map. Finally, we discuss a numerical algorithm to solve the restricted optimization problem and provide numerical experiments to illustrate and compare the proposed approach with the established regularization-based approaches. We further discuss practical implications of our proposal in a modular and interpretable design for GANs which connects the generator training with discriminator computations to allow for learning an overall composite generator.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Large-scale annotation of image segmentation datasets is often prohibitively expensive, as it usually requires a huge number of worker hours to obtain high-quality results. Abundant and reliable data has been, however, crucial for the advances on image understanding tasks achieved by deep learning models. In this paper, we introduce FreeLabel, an intuitive open-source web interface that allows users to obtain high-quality segmentation masks with just a few freehand scribbles, in a matter of seconds. The efficacy of FreeLabel is quantitatively demonstrated by experimental results on the PASCAL dataset as well as on a dataset from the agricultural domain. Designed to benefit the computer vision community, FreeLabel can be used for both crowdsourced or private annotation and has a modular structure that can be easily adapted for any image dataset.

点赞 0
阅读0+

Traditionally, machine learning algorithms have been focused on modeling dynamics of a certain dataset at hand for which all features are available for free. However, there are many concerns such as monetary data collection costs, patient discomfort in medical procedures, and privacy impacts of data collection that require careful consideration in any health analytics system. An efficient solution would only acquire a subset of features based on the value it provides whilst considering acquisition costs. Moreover, datasets that provide feature costs are very limited, especially in healthcare. In this paper, we provide a health dataset as well as a method for assigning feature costs based on the total level of inconvenience asking for each feature entails. Furthermore, based on the suggested dataset, we provide a comparison of recent and state-of-the-art approaches to cost-sensitive feature acquisition and learning. Specifically, we analyze the performance of major sensitivity-based and reinforcement learning based methods in the literature on three different problems in the health domain, including diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension classification.

点赞 0
阅读0+
深度学习—从算法到实战,涵盖深度学习算法和应用实例,包括计算机视觉的目标检测、图像生成,自然语言处理的文本自动摘要等,帮助学员了解、理解、掌握深度学习的基础和前沿算法,并拥有深度学习算法实战经验。本课程由完整全面、脉络清晰的深度学习核心算法入门,到当前学界、工业界热门的深度学习应用实战,有效提高学生解决实际问题的能力。通过学习本课程,学员可以:掌握深度学习核心算法技术;掌握面向不用场景任务的深度学习应用技术;熟悉各种不同深度神经网络的拓扑结构及应用;熟悉前沿深度学习强化学习等热点技术,把握深度学习的技术发展趋势;提升解决深度学习实际问题的能力。 本次课程由专知团队携人工智能领域一线教授博士精心制作,重磅推出!这是一次毫无保留的传授与交流,人工智能未来已来,学习永不止步。希望能与各位一起迎接2019,共同成长。 https://study.163.com/course/introduction/1006498024.htm
登录查看的更多。 返回顶部
本周荟萃主题
深度学习
机器学习的一个分支,它基于试图使用包含复杂结构或由多重非线性变换构成的多个处理层对数据进行高层抽象的一系列算法。
机器学习
“机器学习是近20多年兴起的一门多领域交叉学科,涉及概率论、统计学、逼近论、凸分析、算法复杂度理论等多门学科。机器学习理论主要是设计和分析一些让 可以自动“ 学习”的算法。机器学习算法是一类从数据中自动分析获得规律,并利用规律对未知数据进行预测的算法。因为学习算法中涉及了大量的统计学理论,机器学习与统计推断学联系尤为密切,也被称为统计学习理论。算法设计方面,机器学习理论关注可以实现的,行之有效的学习算法。很多 推论问题属于 无程序可循难度,所以部分的机器学习研究是开发容易处理的近似算法。”

——中文维基百科
强化学习
强化学习 (Reinforcement learning) 是受到行为心理学启发,机器学习中研究个体 (agent) 如何在环境中采取行动以最大化奖赏 (reward) 的领域。

这一问题由于其普遍性,在许多领域中都有研究,例如博弈论,控制论,运筹学,信息论,等等。
信息推荐
信息推荐,是指根据用户的习惯、偏好或兴趣,从不断到来的大规模信息中识别满足用户兴趣的信息的过程。信息推荐任务中的信息往往称为物品(Item)。根据具体应用背景的不同,这些物品可以是新闻、电影、音乐、广告、商品等各种对象。俗称推荐系统。
卷积神经网络

卷积神经网络是一种前馈神经网络,它的人工神经元可以响应一部分覆盖范围内的周围单元,[1]对于大型图像处理有出色表现。
机器翻译
机器翻译,又称为自动翻译,是利用计算机将一种自然语言(源语言)转换为另一种自然语言(目标语言)的过程。它是计算语言学的一个分支,是人工智能的终极目标之一,具有重要的科学研究价值。
计算机视觉
计算机视觉是一门研究如何使机器“看”的科学,更进一步的说,就是是指用摄影机和电脑代替人眼对目标进行识别、跟踪和测量等机器视觉,并进一步做图形处理,使电脑处理成为更适合人眼观察或传送给仪器检测的图像。作为一个科学学科,计算机视觉研究相关的理论和技术,试图建立能够从图像或者多维数据中获取‘信息’的人工智能系统。
图像识别
从图像中提取出有意义、有实用价值的信息。
知识图谱
中文知识图谱(Chinese Knowledge Graph),最早起源于Google Knowledge Graph。知识图谱本质上是一种语义 网络。其结点代表实体(entity)或者概念(concept),边代表实体/概念之间的各种语义关系。