Ahead-of-time forecasting of incident solar-irradiance on a panel is indicative of expected energy yield and is essential for efficient grid distribution and planning. Traditionally, these forecasts are based on meteorological physics models whose parameters are tuned by coarse-grained radiometric tiles sensed from geo-satellites. This research presents a novel application of deep neural network approach to observe and estimate short-term weather effects from videos. Specifically, we use time-lapsed videos (sky-videos) obtained from upward facing wide-lensed cameras (sky-cameras) to directly estimate and forecast solar irradiance. We introduce and present results on two large publicly available datasets obtained from weather stations in two regions of North America using relatively inexpensive optical hardware. These datasets contain over a million images that span for 1 and 12 years respectively, the largest such collection to our knowledge. Compared to satellite based approaches, the proposed deep learning approach significantly reduces the normalized mean-absolute-percentage error for both nowcasting, i.e. prediction of the solar irradiance at the instance the frame is captured, as well as forecasting, ahead-of-time irradiance prediction for a duration for upto 4 hours.
The Encoder-Decoder architecture is a main stream deep learning model for biomedical image segmentation. The encoder fully compresses the input and generates encoded features, and the decoder then produces dense predictions using encoded features. However, decoders are still under-explored in such architectures. In this paper, we comprehensively study the state-of-the-art Encoder-Decoder architectures, and propose a new universal decoder, called cascade decoder, to improve semantic segmentation accuracy. Our cascade decoder can be embedded into existing networks and trained altogether in an end-to-end fashion. The cascade decoder structure aims to conduct more effective decoding of hierarchically encoded features and is more compatible with common encoders than the known decoders. We replace the decoders of state-of-the-art models with our cascade decoder for several challenging biomedical image segmentation tasks, and the considerable improvements achieved demonstrate the efficacy of our new decoding method.
In this study, a novel topology optimization approach based on conditional Wasserstein generative adversarial networks (CWGAN) is developed to replicate the conventional topology optimization algorithms in an extremely computationally inexpensive way. CWGAN consists of a generator and a discriminator, both of which are deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). The limited samples of data, quasi-optimal planar structures, needed for training purposes are generated using the conventional topology optimization algorithms. With CWGANs, the topology optimization conditions can be set to a required value before generating samples. CWGAN truncates the global design space by introducing an equality constraint by the designer. The results are validated by generating an optimized planar structure using the conventional algorithms with the same settings. A proof of concept is presented which is known to be the first such illustration of fusion of CWGANs and topology optimization.
We address two challenges in topic models: (1) Context information around words helps in determining their actual meaning, e.g., "networks" used in the contexts "artificial neural networks" vs. "biological neuron networks". Generative topic models infer topic-word distributions, taking no or only little context into account. Here, we extend a neural autoregressive topic model to exploit the full context information around words in a document in a language modeling fashion. The proposed model is named as iDocNADE. (2) Due to the small number of word occurrences (i.e., lack of context) in short text and data sparsity in a corpus of few documents, the application of topic models is challenging on such texts. Therefore, we propose a simple and efficient way of incorporating external knowledge into neural autoregressive topic models: we use embeddings as a distributional prior. The proposed variants are named as DocNADEe and iDocNADEe. We present novel neural autoregressive topic model variants that consistently outperform state-of-the-art generative topic models in terms of generalization, interpretability (topic coherence) and applicability (retrieval and classification) over 7 long-text and 8 short-text datasets from diverse domains.
End-to-end task-oriented dialogue is challenging since knowledge bases are usually large, dynamic and hard to incorporate into a learning framework. We propose the global-to-local memory pointer (GLMP) networks to address this issue. In our model, a global memory encoder and a local memory decoder are proposed to share external knowledge. The encoder encodes dialogue history, modifies global contextual representation, and generates a global memory pointer. The decoder first generates a sketch response with unfilled slots. Next, it passes the global memory pointer to filter the external knowledge for relevant information, then instantiates the slots via the local memory pointers. We empirically show that our model can improve copy accuracy and mitigate the common out-of-vocabulary problem. As a result, GLMP is able to improve over the previous state-of-the-art models in both simulated bAbI Dialogue dataset and human-human Stanford Multi-domain Dialogue dataset on automatic and human evaluation.