应用统计属于统计学,统计学是一个独立的学科。理论统计侧重统计模型的建立,应用统计侧重各种方法在实际当中的应用。

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We propose a novel approach to multimodal sentiment analysis using deep neural networks combining visual analysis and natural language processing. Our goal is different than the standard sentiment analysis goal of predicting whether a sentence expresses positive or negative sentiment; instead, we aim to infer the latent emotional state of the user. Thus, we focus on predicting the emotion word tags attached by users to their Tumblr posts, treating these as "self-reported emotions." We demonstrate that our multimodal model combining both text and image features outperforms separate models based solely on either images or text. Our model's results are interpretable, automatically yielding sensible word lists associated with emotions. We explore the structure of emotions implied by our model and compare it to what has been posited in the psychology literature, and validate our model on a set of images that have been used in psychology studies. Finally, our work also provides a useful tool for the growing academic study of images - both photographs and memes - on social networks.

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Multiple brain injury criteria (BIC) are developed to quickly quantify brain injury risks after head impacts. These BIC originated from different types of head impacts (e.g., sports and car crashes) are widely used in risk evaluation. However, the accuracy of using the BIC on brain injury risk estimation across different types of head impacts has not been evaluated. Physiologically, brain strain is often considered the key parameter of brain injury. To evaluate the BIC's risk estimation accuracy across five datasets comprising different head impact types, linear regression was used to model 95% maximum principal strain, 95% maximum principal strain at the corpus callosum, and cumulative strain damage (15%) on each of 18 BIC respectively. The results show a significant difference in the relationship between BIC and brain strain across datasets, indicating the same BIC value may suggest different brain strain in different head impact types. The accuracy of brain strain regression is generally decreasing if the BIC regression models are fit on a dataset with a different type of head impact rather than on the dataset with the same type. Given this finding, this study raises concerns for applying BIC to estimate the brain injury risks for head impacts different from the head impacts on which the BIC was developed.

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Multiple brain injury criteria (BIC) are developed to quickly quantify brain injury risks after head impacts. These BIC originated from different types of head impacts (e.g., sports and car crashes) are widely used in risk evaluation. However, the accuracy of using the BIC on brain injury risk estimation across different types of head impacts has not been evaluated. Physiologically, brain strain is often considered the key parameter of brain injury. To evaluate the BIC's risk estimation accuracy across five datasets comprising different head impact types, linear regression was used to model 95% maximum principal strain, 95% maximum principal strain at the corpus callosum, and cumulative strain damage (15%) on each of 18 BIC respectively. The results show a significant difference in the relationship between BIC and brain strain across datasets, indicating the same BIC value may suggest different brain strain in different head impact types. The accuracy of brain strain regression is generally decreasing if the BIC regression models are fit on a dataset with a different type of head impact rather than on the dataset with the same type. Given this finding, this study raises concerns for applying BIC to estimate the brain injury risks for head impacts different from the head impacts on which the BIC was developed.

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