Query-based open-domain NLP tasks require information synthesis from long and diverse web results. Current approaches extractively select portions of web text as input to Sequence-to-Sequence models using methods such as TF-IDF ranking. We propose constructing a local graph structured knowledge base for each query, which compresses the web search information and reduces redundancy. We show that by linearizing the graph into a structured input sequence, models can encode the graph representations within a standard Sequence-to-Sequence setting. For two generative tasks with very long text input, long-form question answering and multi-document summarization, feeding graph representations as input can achieve better performance than using retrieved text portions.
We show state-of-the-art word representation learning methods maximize an objective function that is a lower bound on the mutual information between different parts of a word sequence (i.e., a sentence). Our formulation provides an alternative perspective that unifies classical word embedding models (e.g., Skip-gram) and modern contextual embeddings (e.g., BERT, XLNet). In addition to enhancing our theoretical understanding of these methods, our derivation leads to a principled framework that can be used to construct new self-supervised tasks. We provide an example by drawing inspirations from related methods based on mutual information maximization that have been successful in computer vision, and introduce a simple self-supervised objective that maximizes the mutual information between a global sentence representation and n-grams in the sentence. Our analysis offers a holistic view of representation learning methods to transfer knowledge and translate progress across multiple domains (e.g., natural language processing, computer vision, audio processing).
Developing recommendation system for fashion images is challenging due to the inherent ambiguity associated with what criterion a user is looking at. Suggesting multiple images where each output image is similar to the query image on the basis of a different feature or part is one way to mitigate the problem. Existing works for fashion recommendation have used Siamese or Triplet network to learn features between a similar pair and a similar-dissimilar triplet respectively. However, these methods do not provide basic information such as, how two clothing images are similar, or which parts present in the two images make them similar. In this paper, we propose to recommend images by explicitly learning and exploiting part based similarity. We propose a novel approach of learning discriminative features from weakly-supervised data by using visual attention over the parts and a texture encoding network. We show that the learned features surpass the state-of-the-art in retrieval task on DeepFashion dataset. We then use the proposed model to recommend fashion images having an explicit variation with respect to similarity of any of the parts.
Knowledge graphs (KGs) have proven to be effective for highquality recommendation. However, existing methods mainly investigate separate paths connecting user-item pairs from KGs, thus failing to fully capture the rich semantics and underlying topology of KGs. We, therefore, propose a novel attentive knowledge graph embedding (AKGE) framwork to exploit the complex subgraphs of KGs linking user-item pairs to help better infer user preference. Specifically, AKGE first employs a distance-aware sampling strategy to automatically extract high-order subgraphs, which represent user-item relations with rich semantics. The subgraphs are then encoded by the proposed attentive graph neural network to help learn accurate user preference over items. Extensive validation shows that AKGE consistently outperforms state-of-the-arts. It additionally provides potential explanations for recommendation results.
We introduce a relational graph neural network with bi-directional attention mechanism and hierarchical representation learning for open-domain question answering task. Our model can learn contextual representation by jointly learning and updating the query, knowledge graph, and document representations. The experiments suggest that our model achieves state-of-the-art on the WebQuestionsSP benchmark.
Biomedical text mining is becoming increasingly important as the number of biomedical documents rapidly grows. With the progress in natural language processing (NLP), extracting valuable information from biomedical literature has gained popularity among researchers, and deep learning has boosted the development of effective biomedical text mining models. However, directly applying the advancements in NLP to biomedical text mining often yields unsatisfactory results due to a word distribution shift from general domain corpora to biomedical corpora. In this article, we investigate how the recently introduced pre-trained language model BERT can be adapted for biomedical corpora. We introduce BioBERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers for Biomedical Text Mining), which is a domain-specific language representation model pre-trained on large-scale biomedical corpora. With almost the same architecture across tasks, BioBERT largely outperforms BERT and previous state-of-the-art models in a variety of biomedical text mining tasks when pre-trained on biomedical corpora. While BERT obtains performance comparable to that of previous state-of-the-art models, BioBERT significantly outperforms them on the following three representative biomedical text mining tasks: biomedical named entity recognition (0.62% F1 score improvement), biomedical relation extraction (2.80% F1 score improvement) and biomedical question answering (12.24% MRR improvement). Our analysis results show that pre-training BERT on biomedical corpora helps it to understand complex biomedical texts. We make the pre-trained weights of BioBERT freely available at https://github.com/naver/biobert-pretrained, and the source code for fine-tuning BioBERT available at https://github.com/dmis-lab/biobert.
Non-goal oriented, generative dialogue systems lack the ability to generate answers with grounded facts. A knowledge graph can be considered an abstraction of the real world consisting of well-grounded facts. This paper addresses the problem of generating well grounded responses by integrating knowledge graphs into the dialogue systems response generation process, in an end-to-end manner. A dataset for nongoal oriented dialogues is proposed in this paper in the domain of soccer, conversing on different clubs and national teams along with a knowledge graph for each of these teams. A novel neural network architecture is also proposed as a baseline on this dataset, which can integrate knowledge graphs into the response generation process, producing well articulated, knowledge grounded responses. Empirical evidence suggests that the proposed model performs better than other state-of-the-art models for knowledge graph integrated dialogue systems.
In this paper we present OSCAR (Ontology-based Semantic Composition Augmented Regularization), a method for injecting task-agnostic knowledge from an Ontology or knowledge graph into a neural network during pretraining. We evaluated the impact of including OSCAR when pretraining BERT with Wikipedia articles by measuring the performance when fine-tuning on two question answering tasks involving world knowledge and causal reasoning and one requiring domain (healthcare) knowledge and obtained 33:3%, 18:6%, and 4% improved accuracy compared to pretraining BERT without OSCAR and obtaining new state-of-the-art results on two of the tasks.