视频描述生成(Video Caption),就是从视频中自动生成一段描述性文字

    Most of the existing works on human activity analysis focus on recognition or early recognition of the activity labels from complete or partial observations. Similarly, existing video captioning approaches focus on the observed events in videos. Predicting the labels and the captions of future activities where no frames of the predicted activities have been observed is a challenging problem, with important applications that require anticipatory response. In this work, we propose a system that can infer the labels and the captions of a sequence of future activities. Our proposed network for label prediction of a future activity sequence is similar to a hybrid Siamese network with three branches where the first branch takes visual features from the objects present in the scene, the second branch takes observed activity features and the third branch captures the last observed activity features. The predicted labels and the observed scene context are then mapped to meaningful captions using a sequence-to-sequence learning based method. Experiments on three challenging activity analysis datasets and a video description dataset demonstrate that both our label prediction framework and captioning framework outperforms the state-of-the-arts.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Contextual reasoning is essential to understand events in long untrimmed videos. In this work, we systematically explore different captioning models with various contexts for the dense-captioning events in video task, which aims to generate captions for different events in the untrimmed video. We propose five types of contexts as well as two categories of event captioning models, and evaluate their contributions for event captioning from both accuracy and diversity aspects. The proposed captioning models are plugged into our pipeline system for the dense video captioning challenge. The overall system achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the dense-captioning events in video task with 9.91 METEOR score on the challenge testing set.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Architecture search is the process of automatically learning the neural model or cell structure that best suits the given task. Recently, this approach has shown promising performance improvements (on language modeling and image classification) with reasonable training speed, using a weight sharing strategy called Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS). In our work, we first introduce a novel continual architecture search (CAS) approach, so as to continually evolve the model parameters during the sequential training of several tasks, without losing performance on previously learned tasks (via block-sparsity and orthogonality constraints), thus enabling life-long learning. Next, we explore a multi-task architecture search (MAS) approach over ENAS for finding a unified, single cell structure that performs well across multiple tasks (via joint controller rewards), and hence allows more generalizable transfer of the cell structure knowledge to an unseen new task. We empirically show the effectiveness of our sequential continual learning and parallel multi-task learning based architecture search approaches on diverse sentence-pair classification tasks (GLUE) and multimodal-generation based video captioning tasks. Further, we present several ablations and analyses on the learned cell structures.

    点赞 0
    阅读1+

    Video captioning aims to automatically generate natural language descriptions of video content, which has drawn a lot of attention recent years. Generating accurate and fine-grained captions needs to not only understand the global content of video, but also capture the detailed object information. Meanwhile, video representations have great impact on the quality of generated captions. Thus, it is important for video captioning to capture salient objects with their detailed temporal dynamics, and represent them using discriminative spatio-temporal representations. In this paper, we propose a new video captioning approach based on object-aware aggregation with bidirectional temporal graph (OA-BTG), which captures detailed temporal dynamics for salient objects in video, and learns discriminative spatio-temporal representations by performing object-aware local feature aggregation on detected object regions. The main novelties and advantages are: (1) Bidirectional temporal graph: A bidirectional temporal graph is constructed along and reversely along the temporal order, which provides complementary ways to capture the temporal trajectories for each salient object. (2) Object-aware aggregation: Learnable VLAD (Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors) models are constructed on object temporal trajectories and global frame sequence, which performs object-aware aggregation to learn discriminative representations. A hierarchical attention mechanism is also developed to distinguish different contributions of multiple objects. Experiments on two widely-used datasets demonstrate our OA-BTG achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of [email protected], METEOR and CIDEr metrics.

    点赞 0
    阅读1+

    Video Captioning and Summarization have become very popular in the recent years due to advancements in Sequence Modelling, with the resurgence of Long-Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs) and introduction of Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs). Existing architectures extract spatio-temporal features using CNNs and utilize either GRUs or LSTMs to model dependencies with soft attention layers. These attention layers do help in attending to the most prominent features and improve upon the recurrent units, however, these models suffer from the inherent drawbacks of the recurrent units themselves. The introduction of the Transformer model has driven the Sequence Modelling field into a new direction. In this project, we implement a Transformer-based model for Video captioning, utilizing 3D CNN architectures like C3D and Two-stream I3D for video extraction. We also apply certain dimensionality reduction techniques so as to keep the overall size of the model within limits. We finally present our results on the MSVD and ActivityNet datasets for Single and Dense video captioning tasks respectively.

    点赞 0
    阅读2+

    Exploiting relationships among objects has achieved remarkable progress in interpreting images or videos by natural language. Most existing methods resort to first detecting objects and their relationships, and then generating textual descriptions, which heavily depends on pre-trained detectors and leads to performance drop when facing problems of heavy occlusion, tiny-size objects and long-tail in object detection. In addition, the separate procedure of detecting and captioning results in semantic inconsistency between the pre-defined object/relation categories and the target lexical words. We exploit prior human commonsense knowledge for reasoning relationships between objects without any pre-trained detectors and reaching semantic coherency within one image or video in captioning. The prior knowledge (e.g., in the form of knowledge graph) provides commonsense semantic correlation and constraint between objects that are not explicit in the image and video, serving as useful guidance to build semantic graph for sentence generation. Particularly, we present a joint reasoning method that incorporates 1) commonsense reasoning for embedding image or video regions into semantic space to build semantic graph and 2) relational reasoning for encoding semantic graph to generate sentences. Extensive experiments on the MS-COCO image captioning benchmark and the MSVD video captioning benchmark validate the superiority of our method on leveraging prior commonsense knowledge to enhance relational reasoning for visual captioning.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Typical techniques for video captioning follow the encoder-decoder framework, which can only focus on one source video being processed. A potential disadvantage of such design is that it cannot capture the multiple visual context information of a word appearing in more than one relevant videos in training data. To tackle this limitation, we propose the Memory-Attended Recurrent Network (MARN) for video captioning, in which a memory structure is designed to explore the full-spectrum correspondence between a word and its various similar visual contexts across videos in training data. Thus, our model is able to achieve a more comprehensive understanding for each word and yield higher captioning quality. Furthermore, the built memory structure enables our method to model the compatibility between adjacent words explicitly instead of asking the model to learn implicitly, as most existing models do. Extensive validation on two real-word datasets demonstrates that our MARN consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

    点赞 0
    阅读4+

    Inspired by the fact that different modalities in videos carry complementary information, we propose a Multimodal Semantic Attention Network(MSAN), which is a new encoder-decoder framework incorporating multimodal semantic attributes for video captioning. In the encoding phase, we detect and generate multimodal semantic attributes by formulating it as a multi-label classification problem. Moreover, we add auxiliary classification loss to our model that can obtain more effective visual features and high-level multimodal semantic attribute distributions for sufficient video encoding. In the decoding phase, we extend each weight matrix of the conventional LSTM to an ensemble of attribute-dependent weight matrices, and employ attention mechanism to pay attention to different attributes at each time of the captioning process. We evaluate algorithm on two popular public benchmarks: MSVD and MSR-VTT, achieving competitive results with current state-of-the-art across six evaluation metrics.

    点赞 0
    阅读4+

    It is well believed that video captioning is a fundamental but challenging task in both computer vision and artificial intelligence fields. The prevalent approach is to map an input video to a variable-length output sentence in a sequence to sequence manner via Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Nevertheless, the training of RNN still suffers to some degree from vanishing/exploding gradient problem, making the optimization difficult. Moreover, the inherently recurrent dependency in RNN prevents parallelization within a sequence during training and therefore limits the computations. In this paper, we present a novel design --- Temporal Deformable Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Networks (dubbed as TDConvED) that fully employ convolutions in both encoder and decoder networks for video captioning. Technically, we exploit convolutional block structures that compute intermediate states of a fixed number of inputs and stack several blocks to capture long-term relationships. The structure in encoder is further equipped with temporal deformable convolution to enable free-form deformation of temporal sampling. Our model also capitalizes on temporal attention mechanism for sentence generation. Extensive experiments are conducted on both MSVD and MSR-VTT video captioning datasets, and superior results are reported when comparing to conventional RNN-based encoder-decoder techniques. More remarkably, TDConvED increases CIDEr-D performance from 58.8% to 67.2% on MSVD.

    点赞 0
    阅读2+

    Automatic generation of video captions is a fundamental challenge in computer vision. Recent techniques typically employ a combination of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs) for video captioning. These methods mainly focus on tailoring sequence learning through RNNs for better caption generation, whereas off-the-shelf visual features are borrowed from CNNs. We argue that careful designing of visual features for this task is equally important, and present a visual feature encoding technique to generate semantically rich captions using Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs). Our method embeds rich temporal dynamics in visual features by hierarchically applying Short Fourier Transform to CNN features of the whole video. It additionally derives high level semantics from an object detector to enrich the representation with spatial dynamics of the detected objects. The final representation is projected to a compact space and fed to a language model. By learning a relatively simple language model comprising two GRU layers, we establish new state-of-the-art on MSVD and MSR-VTT datasets for METEOR and ROUGE_L metrics.

    点赞 0
    阅读1+

    Exploiting the temporal dependency among video frames or subshots is very important for the task of video summarization. Practically, RNN is good at temporal dependency modeling, and has achieved overwhelming performance in many video-based tasks, such as video captioning and classification. However, RNN is not capable enough to handle the video summarization task, since traditional RNNs, including LSTM, can only deal with short videos, while the videos in the summarization task are usually in longer duration. To address this problem, we propose a hierarchical recurrent neural network for video summarization, called H-RNN in this paper. Specifically, it has two layers, where the first layer is utilized to encode short video subshots cut from the original video, and the final hidden state of each subshot is input to the second layer for calculating its confidence to be a key subshot. Compared to traditional RNNs, H-RNN is more suitable to video summarization, since it can exploit long temporal dependency among frames, meanwhile, the computation operations are significantly lessened. The results on two popular datasets, including the Combined dataset and VTW dataset, have demonstrated that the proposed H-RNN outperforms the state-of-the-arts.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Dense video captioning is an extremely challenging task since accurate and coherent description of events in a video requires holistic understanding of video contents as well as contextual reasoning of individual events. Most existing approaches handle this problem by first detecting event proposals from a video and then captioning on a subset of the proposals. As a result, the generated sentences are prone to be redundant or inconsistent since they fail to consider temporal dependency between events. To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel dense video captioning framework, which models temporal dependency across events in a video explicitly and leverages visual and linguistic context from prior events for coherent storytelling. This objective is achieved by 1) integrating an event sequence generation network to select a sequence of event proposals adaptively, and 2) feeding the sequence of event proposals to our sequential video captioning network, which is trained by reinforcement learning with two-level rewards at both event and episode levels for better context modeling. The proposed technique achieves outstanding performances on ActivityNet Captions dataset in most metrics.

    点赞 0
    阅读3+

    Building correspondences across different modalities, such as video and language, has recently become critical in many visual recognition applications, such as video captioning. Inspired by machine translation, recent models tackle this task using an encoder-decoder strategy. The (video) encoder is traditionally a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), while the decoding (for language generation) is done using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Current state-of-the-art methods, however, train encoder and decoder separately. CNNs are pretrained on object and/or action recognition tasks and used to encode video-level features. The decoder is then optimised on such static features to generate the video's description. This disjoint setup is arguably sub-optimal for input (video) to output (description) mapping. In this work, we propose to optimise both encoder and decoder simultaneously in an end-to-end fashion. In a two-stage training setting, we first initialise our architecture using pre-trained encoders and decoders -- then, the entire network is trained end-to-end in a fine-tuning stage to learn the most relevant features for video caption generation. In our experiments, we use GoogLeNet and Inception-ResNet-v2 as encoders and an original Soft-Attention (SA-) LSTM as a decoder. Analogously to gains observed in other computer vision problems, we show that end-to-end training significantly improves over the traditional, disjoint training process. We evaluate our End-to-End (EtENet) Networks on the Microsoft Research Video Description (MSVD) and the MSR Video to Text (MSR-VTT) benchmark datasets, showing how EtENet achieves state-of-the-art performance across the board.

    点赞 0
    阅读4+

    Current movie captioning architectures are not capable of mentioning characters with their proper name, replacing them with a generic "someone" tag. The lack of movie description datasets with characters' visual annotations surely plays a relevant role in this shortage. Recently, we proposed to extend the M-VAD dataset by introducing such information. In this paper, we present an improved version of the dataset, namely M-VAD Names, and its semi-automatic annotation procedure. The resulting dataset contains 63k visual tracks and 34k textual mentions, all associated with character identities. To showcase the features of the dataset and quantify the complexity of the naming task, we investigate multimodal architectures to replace the "someone" tags with proper character names in existing video captions. The evaluation is further extended by testing this application on videos outside of the M-VAD Names dataset.

    点赞 0
    阅读0+

    Automatic generation of video captions is a fundamental challenge in computer vision. Recent techniques typically employ a combination of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs) for video captioning. These methods mainly focus on tailoring sequence learning through RNNs for better caption generation, whereas off-the-shelf visual features are borrowed from CNNs. We argue that careful designing of visual features for this task is equally important, and present a visual feature encoding technique to generate semantically rich captions using Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs). Our method embeds rich temporal dynamics in visual features by hierarchically applying Short Fourier Transform to CNN features of the whole video. It additionally derives high level semantics from an object detector to enrich the representation with spatial dynamics of the detected objects. The final representation is projected to a compact space and fed to a language model. By learning a relatively simple language model comprising two GRU layers, we establish new state-of-the-art on MSVD and MSR-VTT datasets for METEOR and ROUGE_L metrics.

    点赞 0
    阅读6+
Top