视频描述生成(Video Caption),就是从视频中自动生成一段描述性文字

    Typical techniques for video captioning follow the encoder-decoder framework, which can only focus on one source video being processed. A potential disadvantage of such design is that it cannot capture the multiple visual context information of a word appearing in more than one relevant videos in training data. To tackle this limitation, we propose the Memory-Attended Recurrent Network (MARN) for video captioning, in which a memory structure is designed to explore the full-spectrum correspondence between a word and its various similar visual contexts across videos in training data. Thus, our model is able to achieve a more comprehensive understanding for each word and yield higher captioning quality. Furthermore, the built memory structure enables our method to model the compatibility between adjacent words explicitly instead of asking the model to learn implicitly, as most existing models do. Extensive validation on two real-word datasets demonstrates that our MARN consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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    Inspired by the fact that different modalities in videos carry complementary information, we propose a Multimodal Semantic Attention Network(MSAN), which is a new encoder-decoder framework incorporating multimodal semantic attributes for video captioning. In the encoding phase, we detect and generate multimodal semantic attributes by formulating it as a multi-label classification problem. Moreover, we add auxiliary classification loss to our model that can obtain more effective visual features and high-level multimodal semantic attribute distributions for sufficient video encoding. In the decoding phase, we extend each weight matrix of the conventional LSTM to an ensemble of attribute-dependent weight matrices, and employ attention mechanism to pay attention to different attributes at each time of the captioning process. We evaluate algorithm on two popular public benchmarks: MSVD and MSR-VTT, achieving competitive results with current state-of-the-art across six evaluation metrics.

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    It is well believed that video captioning is a fundamental but challenging task in both computer vision and artificial intelligence fields. The prevalent approach is to map an input video to a variable-length output sentence in a sequence to sequence manner via Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Nevertheless, the training of RNN still suffers to some degree from vanishing/exploding gradient problem, making the optimization difficult. Moreover, the inherently recurrent dependency in RNN prevents parallelization within a sequence during training and therefore limits the computations. In this paper, we present a novel design --- Temporal Deformable Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Networks (dubbed as TDConvED) that fully employ convolutions in both encoder and decoder networks for video captioning. Technically, we exploit convolutional block structures that compute intermediate states of a fixed number of inputs and stack several blocks to capture long-term relationships. The structure in encoder is further equipped with temporal deformable convolution to enable free-form deformation of temporal sampling. Our model also capitalizes on temporal attention mechanism for sentence generation. Extensive experiments are conducted on both MSVD and MSR-VTT video captioning datasets, and superior results are reported when comparing to conventional RNN-based encoder-decoder techniques. More remarkably, TDConvED increases CIDEr-D performance from 58.8% to 67.2% on MSVD.

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    Automatic generation of video captions is a fundamental challenge in computer vision. Recent techniques typically employ a combination of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs) for video captioning. These methods mainly focus on tailoring sequence learning through RNNs for better caption generation, whereas off-the-shelf visual features are borrowed from CNNs. We argue that careful designing of visual features for this task is equally important, and present a visual feature encoding technique to generate semantically rich captions using Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs). Our method embeds rich temporal dynamics in visual features by hierarchically applying Short Fourier Transform to CNN features of the whole video. It additionally derives high level semantics from an object detector to enrich the representation with spatial dynamics of the detected objects. The final representation is projected to a compact space and fed to a language model. By learning a relatively simple language model comprising two GRU layers, we establish new state-of-the-art on MSVD and MSR-VTT datasets for METEOR and ROUGE_L metrics.

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    Exploiting the temporal dependency among video frames or subshots is very important for the task of video summarization. Practically, RNN is good at temporal dependency modeling, and has achieved overwhelming performance in many video-based tasks, such as video captioning and classification. However, RNN is not capable enough to handle the video summarization task, since traditional RNNs, including LSTM, can only deal with short videos, while the videos in the summarization task are usually in longer duration. To address this problem, we propose a hierarchical recurrent neural network for video summarization, called H-RNN in this paper. Specifically, it has two layers, where the first layer is utilized to encode short video subshots cut from the original video, and the final hidden state of each subshot is input to the second layer for calculating its confidence to be a key subshot. Compared to traditional RNNs, H-RNN is more suitable to video summarization, since it can exploit long temporal dependency among frames, meanwhile, the computation operations are significantly lessened. The results on two popular datasets, including the Combined dataset and VTW dataset, have demonstrated that the proposed H-RNN outperforms the state-of-the-arts.

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    Dense video captioning is an extremely challenging task since accurate and coherent description of events in a video requires holistic understanding of video contents as well as contextual reasoning of individual events. Most existing approaches handle this problem by first detecting event proposals from a video and then captioning on a subset of the proposals. As a result, the generated sentences are prone to be redundant or inconsistent since they fail to consider temporal dependency between events. To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel dense video captioning framework, which models temporal dependency across events in a video explicitly and leverages visual and linguistic context from prior events for coherent storytelling. This objective is achieved by 1) integrating an event sequence generation network to select a sequence of event proposals adaptively, and 2) feeding the sequence of event proposals to our sequential video captioning network, which is trained by reinforcement learning with two-level rewards at both event and episode levels for better context modeling. The proposed technique achieves outstanding performances on ActivityNet Captions dataset in most metrics.

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    Building correspondences across different modalities, such as video and language, has recently become critical in many visual recognition applications, such as video captioning. Inspired by machine translation, recent models tackle this task using an encoder-decoder strategy. The (video) encoder is traditionally a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), while the decoding (for language generation) is done using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Current state-of-the-art methods, however, train encoder and decoder separately. CNNs are pretrained on object and/or action recognition tasks and used to encode video-level features. The decoder is then optimised on such static features to generate the video's description. This disjoint setup is arguably sub-optimal for input (video) to output (description) mapping. In this work, we propose to optimise both encoder and decoder simultaneously in an end-to-end fashion. In a two-stage training setting, we first initialise our architecture using pre-trained encoders and decoders -- then, the entire network is trained end-to-end in a fine-tuning stage to learn the most relevant features for video caption generation. In our experiments, we use GoogLeNet and Inception-ResNet-v2 as encoders and an original Soft-Attention (SA-) LSTM as a decoder. Analogously to gains observed in other computer vision problems, we show that end-to-end training significantly improves over the traditional, disjoint training process. We evaluate our End-to-End (EtENet) Networks on the Microsoft Research Video Description (MSVD) and the MSR Video to Text (MSR-VTT) benchmark datasets, showing how EtENet achieves state-of-the-art performance across the board.

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    Current movie captioning architectures are not capable of mentioning characters with their proper name, replacing them with a generic "someone" tag. The lack of movie description datasets with characters' visual annotations surely plays a relevant role in this shortage. Recently, we proposed to extend the M-VAD dataset by introducing such information. In this paper, we present an improved version of the dataset, namely M-VAD Names, and its semi-automatic annotation procedure. The resulting dataset contains 63k visual tracks and 34k textual mentions, all associated with character identities. To showcase the features of the dataset and quantify the complexity of the naming task, we investigate multimodal architectures to replace the "someone" tags with proper character names in existing video captions. The evaluation is further extended by testing this application on videos outside of the M-VAD Names dataset.

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    Automatic generation of video captions is a fundamental challenge in computer vision. Recent techniques typically employ a combination of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs) for video captioning. These methods mainly focus on tailoring sequence learning through RNNs for better caption generation, whereas off-the-shelf visual features are borrowed from CNNs. We argue that careful designing of visual features for this task is equally important, and present a visual feature encoding technique to generate semantically rich captions using Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs). Our method embeds rich temporal dynamics in visual features by hierarchically applying Short Fourier Transform to CNN features of the whole video. It additionally derives high level semantics from an object detector to enrich the representation with spatial dynamics of the detected objects. The final representation is projected to a compact space and fed to a language model. By learning a relatively simple language model comprising two GRU layers, we establish new state-of-the-art on MSVD and MSR-VTT datasets for METEOR and ROUGE_L metrics.

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    Neural attention (NA) has become a key component of sequence-to-sequence models that yield state-of-the-art performance in as hard tasks as abstractive document summarization (ADS) and video captioning (VC). NA mechanisms perform inference of context vectors; these constitute weighted sums of deterministic input sequence encodings, adaptively sourced over long temporal horizons. Inspired from recent work in the field of amortized variational inference (AVI), in this work we consider treating the context vectors generated by soft-attention (SA) models as latent variables, with approximate finite mixture model posteriors inferred via AVI. We posit that this formulation may yield stronger generalization capacity, in line with the outcomes of existing applications of AVI to deep networks. To illustrate our method, we implement it and experimentally evaluate it considering challenging ADS, VC, and MT benchmarks. This way, we exhibit its improved effectiveness over state-of-the-art alternatives.

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    Neural attention (NA) has become a key component of sequence-to-sequence models that yield state-of-the-art performance in as hard tasks as abstractive document summarization (ADS) and video captioning (VC). NA mechanisms perform inference of context vectors; these constitute weighted sums of deterministic input sequence encodings, adaptively sourced over long temporal horizons. Inspired from recent work in the field of amortized variational inference (AVI), in this work we consider treating the context vectors generated by soft-attention (SA) models as latent variables, with approximate finite mixture model posteriors inferred via AVI. We posit that this formulation may yield stronger generalization capacity, in line with the outcomes of existing applications of AVI to deep networks. To illustrate our method, we implement it and experimentally evaluate it considering challenging ADS, VC, and MT benchmarks. This way, we exhibit its improved effectiveness over state-of-the-art alternatives.

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    Although end-to-end (E2E) learning has led to impressive progress on a variety of visual understanding tasks, it is often impeded by hardware constraints (e.g., GPU memory) and is prone to overfitting. When it comes to video captioning, one of the most challenging benchmark tasks in computer vision, those limitations of E2E learning are especially amplified by the fact that both the input videos and output captions are lengthy sequences. Indeed, state-of-the-art methods for video captioning process video frames by convolutional neural networks and generate captions by unrolling recurrent neural networks. If we connect them in an E2E manner, the resulting model is both memory-consuming and data-hungry, making it extremely hard to train. In this paper, we propose a multitask reinforcement learning approach to training an E2E video captioning model. The main idea is to mine and construct as many effective tasks (e.g., attributes, rewards, and the captions) as possible from the human captioned videos such that they can jointly regulate the search space of the E2E neural network, from which an E2E video captioning model can be found and generalized to the testing phase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first video captioning model that is trained end-to-end from the raw video input to the caption output. Experimental results show that such a model outperforms existing ones to a large margin on two benchmark video captioning datasets.

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    An ideal description for a given video should fix its gaze on salient and representative content, which is capable of distinguishing this video from others. However, the distribution of different words is unbalanced in video captioning datasets, where distinctive words for describing video-specific salient objects are far less than common words such as 'a' 'the' and 'person'. The dataset bias often results in recognition error or detail deficiency of salient but unusual objects. To address this issue, we propose a novel learning strategy called Information Loss, which focuses on the relationship between the video-specific visual content and corresponding representative words. Moreover, a framework with hierarchical visual representations and an optimized hierarchical attention mechanism is established to capture the most salient spatial-temporal visual information, which fully exploits the potential strength of the proposed learning strategy. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the ingenious guidance strategy together with the optimized architecture outperforms state-of-the-art video captioning methods on MSVD with CIDEr score 87.5, and achieves superior CIDEr score 47.7 on MSR-VTT. We also show that our Information Loss is generic which improves various models by significant margins.

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    Recent progress has been made in using attention based encoder-decoder framework for image and video captioning. Most existing decoders apply the attention mechanism to every generated word including both visual words (e.g., "gun" and "shooting") and non-visual words (e.g. "the", "a"). However, these non-visual words can be easily predicted using natural language model without considering visual signals or attention. Imposing attention mechanism on non-visual words could mislead and decrease the overall performance of visual captioning. Furthermore, the hierarchy of LSTMs enables more complex representation of visual data, capturing information at different scales. To address these issues, we propose a hierarchical LSTM with adaptive attention (hLSTMat) approach for image and video captioning. Specifically, the proposed framework utilizes the spatial or temporal attention for selecting specific regions or frames to predict the related words, while the adaptive attention is for deciding whether to depend on the visual information or the language context information. Also, a hierarchical LSTMs is designed to simultaneously consider both low-level visual information and high-level language context information to support the caption generation. We initially design our hLSTMat for video captioning task. Then, we further refine it and apply it to image captioning task. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework, we test our method on both video and image captioning tasks. Experimental results show that our approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance for most of the evaluation metrics on both tasks. The effect of important components is also well exploited in the ablation study.

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    Dense video captioning is a fine-grained video understanding task that involves two sub-problems: localizing distinct events in a long video stream, and generating captions for the localized events. We propose the Joint Event Detection and Description Network (JEDDi-Net), which solves the dense video captioning task in an end-to-end fashion. Our model continuously encodes the input video stream with three-dimensional convolutional layers, proposes variable-length temporal events based on pooled features, and generates their captions. Proposal features are extracted within each proposal segment through 3D Segment-of-Interest pooling from shared video feature encoding. In order to explicitly model temporal relationships between visual events and their captions in a single video, we also propose a two-level hierarchical captioning module that keeps track of context. On the large-scale ActivityNet Captions dataset, JEDDi-Net demonstrates improved results as measured by standard metrics. We also present the first dense captioning results on the TACoS-MultiLevel dataset.

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