Traditional 3D models learn a latent representation of faces using linear subspaces from no more than 300 training scans of a single database. The main roadblock of building a large-scale face model from diverse 3D databases lies in the lack of dense correspondence among raw scans. To address these problems, this paper proposes an innovative framework to jointly learn a nonlinear face model from a diverse set of raw 3D scan databases and establish dense point-to-point correspondence among their scans. Specifically, by treating input raw scans as unorganized point clouds, we explore the use of PointNet architectures for converting point clouds to identity and expression feature representations, from which the decoder networks recover their 3D face shapes. Further, we propose a weakly supervised learning approach that does not require correspondence label for the scans. We demonstrate the superior dense correspondence and representation power of our proposed method in shape and expression, and its contribution to single-image 3D face reconstruction.
3D Morphable Model (3DMM) based methods have achieved great success in recovering 3D face shapes from single-view images. However, the facial textures recovered by such methods lack the fidelity as exhibited in the input images. Recent work demonstrates high-quality facial texture recovering with generative networks trained from a large-scale database of high-resolution UV maps of face textures, which is hard to prepare and not publicly available. In this paper, we introduce a method to reconstruct 3D facial shapes with high-fidelity textures from single-view images in-the-wild, without the need to capture a large-scale face texture database. The main idea is to refine the initial texture generated by a 3DMM based method with facial details from the input image. To this end, we propose to use graph convolutional networks to reconstruct the detailed colors for the mesh vertices instead of reconstructing the UV map. Experiments show that our method can generate high-quality results and outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.
This work addresses a novel and challenging problem of estimating the full 3D hand shape and pose from a single RGB image. Most current methods in 3D hand analysis from monocular RGB images only focus on estimating the 3D locations of hand keypoints, which cannot fully express the 3D shape of hand. In contrast, we propose a Graph Convolutional Neural Network (Graph CNN) based method to reconstruct a full 3D mesh of hand surface that contains richer information of both 3D hand shape and pose. To train networks with full supervision, we create a large-scale synthetic dataset containing both ground truth 3D meshes and 3D poses. When fine-tuning the networks on real-world datasets without 3D ground truth, we propose a weakly-supervised approach by leveraging the depth map as a weak supervision in training. Through extensive evaluations on our proposed new datasets and two public datasets, we show that our proposed method can produce accurate and reasonable 3D hand mesh, and can achieve superior 3D hand pose estimation accuracy when compared with state-of-the-art methods.
Monocular image-based 3D reconstruction of faces is a long-standing problem in computer vision. Since image data is a 2D projection of a 3D face, the resulting depth ambiguity makes the problem ill-posed. Most existing methods rely on data-driven priors that are built from limited 3D face scans. In contrast, we propose multi-frame video-based self-supervised training of a deep network that (i) learns a face identity model both in shape and appearance while (ii) jointly learning to reconstruct 3D faces. Our face model is learned using only corpora of in-the-wild video clips collected from the Internet. This virtually endless source of training data enables learning of a highly general 3D face model. In order to achieve this, we propose a novel multi-frame consistency loss that ensures consistent shape and appearance across multiple frames of a subject's face, thus minimizing depth ambiguity. At test time we can use an arbitrary number of frames, so that we can perform both monocular as well as multi-frame reconstruction.
In this paper, we propose PointRCNN for 3D object detection from raw point cloud. The whole framework is composed of two stages: stage-1 for the bottom-up 3D proposal generation and stage-2 for refining proposals in the canonical coordinates to obtain the final detection results. Instead of generating proposals from RGB image or projecting point cloud to bird's view or voxels as previous methods do, our stage-1 sub-network directly generates a small number of high-quality 3D proposals from point cloud in a bottom-up manner via segmenting the point cloud of whole scene into foreground points and background. The stage-2 sub-network transforms the pooled points of each proposal to canonical coordinates to learn better local spatial features, which is combined with global semantic features of each point learned in stage-1 for accurate box refinement and confidence prediction. Extensive experiments on the 3D detection benchmark of KITTI dataset show that our proposed architecture outperforms state-of-the-art methods with remarkable margins by using only point cloud as input.
This paper presents a novel approach for synthesizing automatically age-progressed facial images in video sequences using Deep Reinforcement Learning. The proposed method models facial structures and the longitudinal face-aging process of given subjects coherently across video frames. The approach is optimized using a long-term reward, Reinforcement Learning function with deep feature extraction from Deep Convolutional Neural Network. Unlike previous age-progression methods that are only able to synthesize an aged likeness of a face from a single input image, the proposed approach is capable of age-progressing facial likenesses in videos with consistently synthesized facial features across frames. In addition, the deep reinforcement learning method guarantees preservation of the visual identity of input faces after age-progression. Results on videos of our new collected aging face AGFW-v2 database demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solution in terms of both quality of age-progressed faces, temporal smoothness, and cross-age face verification.
We propose a method to efficiently learn diverse strategies in reinforcement learning for query reformulation in the tasks of document retrieval and question answering. In the proposed framework an agent consists of multiple specialized sub-agents and a meta-agent that learns to aggregate the answers from sub-agents to produce a final answer. Sub-agents are trained on disjoint partitions of the training data, while the meta-agent is trained on the full training set. Our method makes learning faster, because it is highly parallelizable, and has better generalization performance than strong baselines, such as an ensemble of agents trained on the full data. We show that the improved performance is due to the increased diversity of reformulation strategies.
We propose Human Pose Models that represent RGB and depth images of human poses independent of clothing textures, backgrounds, lighting conditions, body shapes and camera viewpoints. Learning such universal models requires training images where all factors are varied for every human pose. Capturing such data is prohibitively expensive. Therefore, we develop a framework for synthesizing the training data. First, we learn representative human poses from a large corpus of real motion captured human skeleton data. Next, we fit synthetic 3D humans with different body shapes to each pose and render each from 180 camera viewpoints while randomly varying the clothing textures, background and lighting. Generative Adversarial Networks are employed to minimize the gap between synthetic and real image distributions. CNN models are then learned that transfer human poses to a shared high-level invariant space. The learned CNN models are then used as invariant feature extractors from real RGB and depth frames of human action videos and the temporal variations are modelled by Fourier Temporal Pyramid. Finally, linear SVM is used for classification. Experiments on three benchmark cross-view human action datasets show that our algorithm outperforms existing methods by significant margins for RGB only and RGB-D action recognition.
This paper aims at developing a faster and a more accurate solution to the amodal 3D object detection problem for indoor scenes. It is achieved through a novel neural network that takes a pair of RGB-D images as the input and delivers oriented 3D bounding boxes as the output. The network, named 3D-SSD, composed of two parts: hierarchical feature fusion and multi-layer prediction. The hierarchical feature fusion combines appearance and geometric features from RGB-D images while the multi-layer prediction utilizes multi-scale features for object detection. As a result, the network can exploit 2.5D representations in a synergetic way to improve the accuracy and efficiency. The issue of object sizes is addressed by attaching a set of 3D anchor boxes with varying sizes to every location of the prediction layers. At the end stage, the category scores for 3D anchor boxes are generated with adjusted positions, sizes and orientations respectively, leading to the final detections using non-maximum suppression. In the training phase, the positive samples are identified with the aid of 2D ground truth to avoid the noisy estimation of depth from raw data, which guide to a better converged model. Experiments performed on the challenging SUN RGB-D dataset show that our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art Deep Sliding Shape by 10.2% mAP and 88x faster. Further, experiments also suggest our approach achieves comparable accuracy and is 386x faster than the state-of-art method on the NYUv2 dataset even with a smaller input image size.
This study considers the 3D human pose estimation problem in a single RGB image by proposing a conditional random field (CRF) model over 2D poses, in which the 3D pose is obtained as a byproduct of the inference process. The unary term of the proposed CRF model is defined based on a powerful heat-map regression network, which has been proposed for 2D human pose estimation. This study also presents a regression network for lifting the 2D pose to 3D pose and proposes the prior term based on the consistency between the estimated 3D pose and the 2D pose. To obtain the approximate solution of the proposed CRF model, the N-best strategy is adopted. The proposed inference algorithm can be viewed as sequential processes of bottom-up generation of 2D and 3D pose proposals from the input 2D image based on deep networks and top-down verification of such proposals by checking their consistencies. To evaluate the proposed method, we use two large-scale datasets: Human3.6M and HumanEva. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art 3D human pose estimation performance.
The task of event extraction has long been investigated in a supervised learning paradigm, which is bound by the number and the quality of the training instances. Existing training data must be manually generated through a combination of expert domain knowledge and extensive human involvement. However, due to drastic efforts required in annotating text, the resultant datasets are usually small, which severally affects the quality of the learned model, making it hard to generalize. Our work develops an automatic approach for generating training data for event extraction. Our approach allows us to scale up event extraction training instances from thousands to hundreds of thousands, and it does this at a much lower cost than a manual approach. We achieve this by employing distant supervision to automatically create event annotations from unlabelled text using existing structured knowledge bases or tables.We then develop a neural network model with post inference to transfer the knowledge extracted from structured knowledge bases to automatically annotate typed events with corresponding arguments in text.We evaluate our approach by using the knowledge extracted from Freebase to label texts from Wikipedia articles. Experimental results show that our approach can generate a large number of high quality training instances. We show that this large volume of training data not only leads to a better event extractor, but also allows us to detect multiple typed events.