Domain adaptation for sentiment analysis is challenging due to the fact that supervised classifiers are very sensitive to changes in domain. The two most prominent approaches to this problem are structural correspondence learning and autoencoders. However, they either require long training times or suffer greatly on highly divergent domains. Inspired by recent advances in cross-lingual sentiment analysis, we provide a novel perspective and cast the domain adaptation problem as an embedding projection task. Our model takes as input two mono-domain embedding spaces and learns to project them to a bi-domain space, which is jointly optimized to (1) project across domains and to (2) predict sentiment. We perform domain adaptation experiments on 20 source-target domain pairs for sentiment classification and report novel state-of-the-art results on 11 domain pairs, including the Amazon domain adaptation datasets and SemEval 2013 and 2016 datasets. Our analysis shows that our model performs comparably to state-of-the-art approaches on domains that are similar, while performing significantly better on highly divergent domains. Our code is available at https://github.com/jbarnesspain/domain_blse
Fine-grained action recognition datasets exhibit environmental bias, where multiple video sequences are captured from a limited number of environments. Training a model in one environment and deploying in another results in a drop in performance due to an unavoidable domain shift. Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) approaches have frequently utilised adversarial training between the source and target domains. However, these approaches have not explored the multi-modal nature of video within each domain. In this work we exploit the correspondence of modalities as a self-supervised alignment approach for UDA in addition to adversarial alignment. We test our approach on three kitchens from our large-scale dataset, EPIC-Kitchens, using two modalities commonly employed for action recognition: RGB and Optical Flow. We show that multi-modal self-supervision alone improves the performance over source-only training by 2.4% on average. We then combine adversarial training with multi-modal self-supervision, showing that our approach outperforms other UDA methods by 3%.
Despite the recent progress of fully-supervised action segmentation techniques, the performance is still not fully satisfactory. One main challenge is the problem of spatiotemporal variations (e.g. different people may perform the same activity in various ways). Therefore, we exploit unlabeled videos to address this problem by reformulating the action segmentation task as a cross-domain problem with domain discrepancy caused by spatio-temporal variations. To reduce the discrepancy, we propose Self-Supervised Temporal Domain Adaptation (SSTDA), which contains two self-supervised auxiliary tasks (binary and sequential domain prediction) to jointly align cross-domain feature spaces embedded with local and global temporal dynamics, achieving better performance than other Domain Adaptation (DA) approaches. On three challenging benchmark datasets (GTEA, 50Salads, and Breakfast), SSTDA outperforms the current state-of-the-art method by large margins (e.g. for the F1@25 score, from 59.6% to 69.1% on Breakfast, from 73.4% to 81.5% on 50Salads, and from 83.6% to 89.1% on GTEA), and requires only 65% of the labeled training data for comparable performance, demonstrating the usefulness of adapting to unlabeled target videos across variations. The source code is available at https://github.com/cmhungsteve/SSTDA.
The task of learning a sentiment classification model that adapts well to any target domain, different from the source domain, is a challenging problem. Majority of the existing approaches focus on learning a common representation by leveraging both source and target data during training. In this paper, we introduce a two-stage training procedure that leverages weakly supervised datasets for developing simple lift-and-shift-based predictive models without being exposed to the target domain during the training phase. Experimental results show that transfer with weak supervision from a source domain to various target domains provides performance very close to that obtained via supervised training on the target domain itself.
While the general task of textual sentiment classification has been widely studied, much less research looks specifically at sentiment between a specified source and target. To tackle this problem, we experimented with a state-of-the-art relation extraction model. Surprisingly, we found that despite reasonable performance, the model's attention was often systematically misaligned with the words that contribute to sentiment. Thus, we directly trained the model's attention with human rationales and improved our model performance by a robust 4~8 points on all tasks we defined on our data sets. We also present a rigorous analysis of the model's attention, both trained and untrained, using novel and intuitive metrics. Our results show that untrained attention does not provide faithful explanations; however, trained attention with concisely annotated human rationales not only increases performance, but also brings faithful explanations. Encouragingly, a small amount of annotated human rationales suffice to correct the attention in our task.
This paper proposes a way to improve the performance of existing algorithms for text classification in domains with strong language semantics. We propose a domain adaptation layer learns weights to combine a generic and a domain specific (DS) word embedding into a domain adapted (DA) embedding. The DA word embeddings are then used as inputs to a generic encoder + classifier framework to perform a downstream task such as classification. This adaptation layer is particularly suited to datasets that are modest in size, and which are, therefore, not ideal candidates for (re)training a deep neural network architecture. Results on binary and multi-class classification tasks using popular encoder architectures, including current state-of-the-art methods (with and without the shallow adaptation layer) show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Multilingual Word Embeddings (MWEs) represent words from multiple languages in a single distributional vector space. Unsupervised MWE (UMWE) methods acquire multilingual embeddings without cross-lingual supervision, which is a significant advantage over traditional supervised approaches and opens many new possibilities for low-resource languages. Prior art for learning UMWEs, however, merely relies on a number of independently trained Unsupervised Bilingual Word Embeddings (UBWEs) to obtain multilingual embeddings. These methods fail to leverage the interdependencies that exist among many languages. To address this shortcoming, we propose a fully unsupervised framework for learning MWEs that directly exploits the relations between all language pairs. Our model substantially outperforms previous approaches in the experiments on multilingual word translation and cross-lingual word similarity. In addition, our model even beats supervised approaches trained with cross-lingual resources.
The emerging technique of deep learning has been widely applied in many different areas. However, when adopted in a certain specific domain, this technique should be combined with domain knowledge to improve efficiency and accuracy. In particular, when analyzing the applications of deep learning in sentiment analysis, we found that the current approaches are suffering from the following drawbacks: (i) the existing works have not paid much attention to the importance of different types of sentiment terms, which is an important concept in this area; and (ii) the loss function currently employed does not well reflect the degree of error of sentiment misclassification. To overcome such problem, we propose to combine domain knowledge with deep learning. Our proposal includes using sentiment scores, learnt by regression, to augment training data; and introducing penalty matrix for enhancing the loss function of cross entropy. When experimented, we achieved a significant improvement in classification results.
Sentiment analysis is a key component in various text mining applications. Numerous sentiment classification techniques, including conventional and deep learning-based methods, have been proposed in the literature. In most existing methods, a high-quality training set is assumed to be given. Nevertheless, constructing a high-quality training set that consists of highly accurate labels is challenging in real applications. This difficulty stems from the fact that text samples usually contain complex sentiment representations, and their annotation is subjective. We address this challenge in this study by leveraging a new labeling strategy and utilizing a two-level long short-term memory network to construct a sentiment classifier. Lexical cues are useful for sentiment analysis, and they have been utilized in conventional studies. For example, polar and privative words play important roles in sentiment analysis. A new encoding strategy, that is, $\rho$-hot encoding, is proposed to alleviate the drawbacks of one-hot encoding and thus effectively incorporate useful lexical cues. We compile three Chinese data sets on the basis of our label strategy and proposed methodology. Experiments on the three data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms.
Deep learning has emerged as a powerful machine learning technique that learns multiple layers of representations or features of the data and produces state-of-the-art prediction results. Along with the success of deep learning in many other application domains, deep learning is also popularly used in sentiment analysis in recent years. This paper first gives an overview of deep learning and then provides a comprehensive survey of its current applications in sentiment analysis.