Important decisions that impact human lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems (ADMS) can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory outcomes, violate individual privacy, and undermine human self-determination. New governance mechanisms are thus needed that help organisations design and deploy ADMS in ways that are ethical, while enabling society to reap the full economic and social benefits of automation. In this article, we consider the feasibility and efficacy of ethics-based auditing (EBA) as a governance mechanism that allows organisations to validate claims made about their ADMS. Building on previous work, we define EBA as a structured process whereby an entity's present or past behaviour is assessed for consistency with relevant principles or norms. We then offer three contributions to the existing literature. First, we provide a theoretical explanation of how EBA can contribute to good governance by promoting procedural regularity and transparency. Second, we propose seven criteria for how to design and implement EBA procedures successfully. Third, we identify and discuss the conceptual, technical, social, economic, organisational, and institutional constraints associated with EBA. We conclude that EBA should be considered an integral component of multifaced approaches to managing the ethical risks posed by ADMS.

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Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) have seen rapid progress in recent years. To ensure the safety and reliability of these systems, extensive testings are being conducted before their future mass deployment. Testing the system on the road is the closest to real-world and desirable approach, but it is incredibly costly. Also, it is infeasible to cover rare corner cases using such real-world testing. Thus, a popular alternative is to evaluate an ADS's performance in some well-designed challenging scenarios, a.k.a. scenario-based testing. High-fidelity simulators have been widely used in this setting to maximize flexibility and convenience in testing what-if scenarios. Although many works have been proposed offering diverse frameworks/methods for testing specific systems, the comparisons and connections among these works are still missing. To bridge this gap, in this work, we provide a generic formulation of scenario-based testing in high-fidelity simulation and conduct a literature review on the existing works. We further compare them and present the open challenges as well as potential future research directions.

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Bagging and boosting are two popular ensemble methods in machine learning (ML) that produce many individual decision trees. Due to the inherent ensemble characteristic of these methods, they typically outperform single decision trees or other ML models in predictive performance. However, numerous decision paths are generated for each decision tree, increasing the overall complexity of the model and hindering its use in domains that require trustworthy and explainable decisions, such as finance, social care, and health care. Thus, the interpretability of bagging and boosting algorithms, such as random forests and adaptive boosting, reduces as the number of decisions rises. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics tool that aims to assist users in extracting decisions from such ML models via a thorough visual inspection workflow that includes selecting a set of robust and diverse models (originating from different ensemble learning algorithms), choosing important features according to their global contribution, and deciding which decisions are essential for global explanation (or locally, for specific cases). The outcome is a final decision based on the class agreement of several models and the explored manual decisions exported by users. Finally, we evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of VisRuler via a use case, a usage scenario, and a user study.

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The increasing use of Machine Learning (ML) components embedded in autonomous systems -- so-called Learning-Enabled Systems (LES) -- has resulted in the pressing need to assure their functional safety. As for traditional functional safety, the emerging consensus within both, industry and academia, is to use assurance cases for this purpose. Typically assurance cases support claims of reliability in support of safety, and can be viewed as a structured way of organising arguments and evidence generated from safety analysis and reliability modelling activities. While such assurance activities are traditionally guided by consensus-based standards developed from vast engineering experience, LES pose new challenges in safety-critical application due to the characteristics and design of ML models. In this article, we first present an overall assurance framework for LES with an emphasis on quantitative aspects, e.g., breaking down system-level safety targets to component-level requirements and supporting claims stated in reliability metrics. We then introduce a novel model-agnostic Reliability Assessment Model (RAM) for ML classifiers that utilises the operational profile and robustness verification evidence. We discuss the model assumptions and the inherent challenges of assessing ML reliability uncovered by our RAM and propose practical solutions. Probabilistic safety arguments at the lower ML component-level are also developed based on the RAM. Finally, to evaluate and demonstrate our methods, we not only conduct experiments on synthetic/benchmark datasets but also demonstrate the scope of our methods with a comprehensive case study on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in simulation.

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The AI landscape demands a broad set of legal, ethical, and societal considerations to be accounted for in order to develop ethical AI (eAI) solutions which sustain human values and rights. Currently, a variety of guidelines and a handful of niche tools exist to account for and tackle individual challenges. However, it is also well established that many organizations face practical challenges in navigating these considerations from a risk management perspective. Therefore, new methodologies are needed to provide a well-vetted and real-world applicable structure and path through the checks and balances needed for ethically assessing and guiding the development of AI. In this paper we show that a multidisciplinary research approach, spanning cross-sectional viewpoints, is the foundation of a pragmatic definition of ethical and societal risks faced by organizations using AI. Equally important is the findings of cross-structural governance for implementing eAI successfully. Based on evidence acquired from our multidisciplinary research investigation, we propose a novel data-driven risk assessment methodology, entitled DRESS-eAI. In addition, through the evaluation of our methodological implementation, we demonstrate its state-of-the-art relevance as a tool for sustaining human values in the data-driven AI era.

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The concept of meaningful human control has been proposed to address responsibility gaps and mitigate them by establishing conditions that enable a proper attribution of responsibility for humans (e.g., users, designers and developers, manufacturers, legislators). However, the relevant discussions around meaningful human control have so far not resulted in clear requirements for researchers, designers, and engineers. As a result, there is no consensus on how to assess whether a designed AI system is under meaningful human control, making the practical development of AI-based systems that remain under meaningful human control challenging. In this paper, we address the gap between philosophical theory and engineering practice by identifying four actionable properties which AI-based systems must have to be under meaningful human control. First, a system in which humans and AI algorithms interact should have an explicitly defined domain of morally loaded situations within which the system ought to operate. Second, humans and AI agents within the system should have appropriate and mutually compatible representations. Third, responsibility attributed to a human should be commensurate with that human's ability and authority to control the system. Fourth, there should be explicit links between the actions of the AI agents and actions of humans who are aware of their moral responsibility. We argue these four properties are necessary for AI systems under meaningful human control, and provide possible directions to incorporate them into practice. We illustrate these properties with two use cases, automated vehicle and AI-based hiring. We believe these four properties will support practically-minded professionals to take concrete steps toward designing and engineering for AI systems that facilitate meaningful human control and responsibility.

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Fast developing artificial intelligence (AI) technology has enabled various applied systems deployed in the real world, impacting people's everyday lives. However, many current AI systems were found vulnerable to imperceptible attacks, biased against underrepresented groups, lacking in user privacy protection, etc., which not only degrades user experience but erodes the society's trust in all AI systems. In this review, we strive to provide AI practitioners a comprehensive guide towards building trustworthy AI systems. We first introduce the theoretical framework of important aspects of AI trustworthiness, including robustness, generalization, explainability, transparency, reproducibility, fairness, privacy preservation, alignment with human values, and accountability. We then survey leading approaches in these aspects in the industry. To unify the current fragmented approaches towards trustworthy AI, we propose a systematic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of AI systems, ranging from data acquisition to model development, to development and deployment, finally to continuous monitoring and governance. In this framework, we offer concrete action items to practitioners and societal stakeholders (e.g., researchers and regulators) to improve AI trustworthiness. Finally, we identify key opportunities and challenges in the future development of trustworthy AI systems, where we identify the need for paradigm shift towards comprehensive trustworthy AI systems.

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Rishi Bommasani,Drew A. Hudson,Ehsan Adeli,Russ Altman,Simran Arora,Sydney von Arx,Michael S. Bernstein,Jeannette Bohg,Antoine Bosselut,Emma Brunskill,Erik Brynjolfsson,Shyamal Buch,Dallas Card,Rodrigo Castellon,Niladri Chatterji,Annie Chen,Kathleen Creel,Jared Quincy Davis,Dora Demszky,Chris Donahue,Moussa Doumbouya,Esin Durmus,Stefano Ermon,John Etchemendy,Kawin Ethayarajh,Li Fei-Fei,Chelsea Finn,Trevor Gale,Lauren Gillespie,Karan Goel,Noah Goodman,Shelby Grossman,Neel Guha,Tatsunori Hashimoto,Peter Henderson,John Hewitt,Daniel E. Ho,Jenny Hong,Kyle Hsu,Jing Huang,Thomas Icard,Saahil Jain,Dan Jurafsky,Pratyusha Kalluri,Siddharth Karamcheti,Geoff Keeling,Fereshte Khani,Omar Khattab,Pang Wei Kohd,Mark Krass,Ranjay Krishna,Rohith Kuditipudi,Ananya Kumar,Faisal Ladhak,Mina Lee,Tony Lee,Jure Leskovec,Isabelle Levent,Xiang Lisa Li,Xuechen Li,Tengyu Ma,Ali Malik,Christopher D. Manning,Suvir Mirchandani,Eric Mitchell,Zanele Munyikwa,Suraj Nair,Avanika Narayan,Deepak Narayanan,Ben Newman,Allen Nie,Juan Carlos Niebles,Hamed Nilforoshan,Julian Nyarko,Giray Ogut,Laurel Orr,Isabel Papadimitriou,Joon Sung Park,Chris Piech,Eva Portelance,Christopher Potts,Aditi Raghunathan,Rob Reich,Hongyu Ren,Frieda Rong,Yusuf Roohani,Camilo Ruiz,Jack Ryan,Christopher Ré,Dorsa Sadigh,Shiori Sagawa,Keshav Santhanam,Andy Shih,Krishnan Srinivasan,Alex Tamkin,Rohan Taori,Armin W. Thomas,Florian Tramèr,Rose E. Wang,William Wang,Bohan Wu,Jiajun Wu,Yuhuai Wu,Sang Michael Xie,Michihiro Yasunaga,Jiaxuan You,Matei Zaharia,Michael Zhang,Tianyi Zhang,Xikun Zhang,Yuhui Zhang,Lucia Zheng,Kaitlyn Zhou,Percy Liang
Rishi Bommasani,Drew A. Hudson,Ehsan Adeli,Russ Altman,Simran Arora,Sydney von Arx,Michael S. Bernstein,Jeannette Bohg,Antoine Bosselut,Emma Brunskill,Erik Brynjolfsson,Shyamal Buch,Dallas Card,Rodrigo Castellon,Niladri Chatterji,Annie Chen,Kathleen Creel,Jared Quincy Davis,Dora Demszky,Chris Donahue,Moussa Doumbouya,Esin Durmus,Stefano Ermon,John Etchemendy,Kawin Ethayarajh,Li Fei-Fei,Chelsea Finn,Trevor Gale,Lauren Gillespie,Karan Goel,Noah Goodman,Shelby Grossman,Neel Guha,Tatsunori Hashimoto,Peter Henderson,John Hewitt,Daniel E. Ho,Jenny Hong,Kyle Hsu,Jing Huang,Thomas Icard,Saahil Jain,Dan Jurafsky,Pratyusha Kalluri,Siddharth Karamcheti,Geoff Keeling,Fereshte Khani,Omar Khattab,Pang Wei Kohd,Mark Krass,Ranjay Krishna,Rohith Kuditipudi,Ananya Kumar,Faisal Ladhak,Mina Lee,Tony Lee,Jure Leskovec,Isabelle Levent,Xiang Lisa Li,Xuechen Li,Tengyu Ma,Ali Malik,Christopher D. Manning,Suvir Mirchandani,Eric Mitchell,Zanele Munyikwa,Suraj Nair,Avanika Narayan,Deepak Narayanan,Ben Newman,Allen Nie,Juan Carlos Niebles,Hamed Nilforoshan,Julian Nyarko,Giray Ogut,Laurel Orr,Isabel Papadimitriou,Joon Sung Park,Chris Piech,Eva Portelance,Christopher Potts,Aditi Raghunathan,Rob Reich,Hongyu Ren,Frieda Rong,Yusuf Roohani,Camilo Ruiz,Jack Ryan,Christopher Ré,Dorsa Sadigh,Shiori Sagawa,Keshav Santhanam,Andy Shih,Krishnan Srinivasan,Alex Tamkin,Rohan Taori,Armin W. Thomas,Florian Tramèr,Rose E. Wang,William Wang,Bohan Wu,Jiajun Wu,Yuhuai Wu,Sang Michael Xie,Michihiro Yasunaga,Jiaxuan You,Matei Zaharia,Michael Zhang,Tianyi Zhang,Xikun Zhang,Yuhui Zhang,Lucia Zheng,Kaitlyn Zhou,Percy Liang

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.

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Training datasets for machine learning often have some form of missingness. For example, to learn a model for deciding whom to give a loan, the available training data includes individuals who were given a loan in the past, but not those who were not. This missingness, if ignored, nullifies any fairness guarantee of the training procedure when the model is deployed. Using causal graphs, we characterize the missingness mechanisms in different real-world scenarios. We show conditions under which various distributions, used in popular fairness algorithms, can or can not be recovered from the training data. Our theoretical results imply that many of these algorithms can not guarantee fairness in practice. Modeling missingness also helps to identify correct design principles for fair algorithms. For example, in multi-stage settings where decisions are made in multiple screening rounds, we use our framework to derive the minimal distributions required to design a fair algorithm. Our proposed algorithm decentralizes the decision-making process and still achieves similar performance to the optimal algorithm that requires centralization and non-recoverable distributions.

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Driven by the visions of Internet of Things and 5G communications, the edge computing systems integrate computing, storage and network resources at the edge of the network to provide computing infrastructure, enabling developers to quickly develop and deploy edge applications. Nowadays the edge computing systems have received widespread attention in both industry and academia. To explore new research opportunities and assist users in selecting suitable edge computing systems for specific applications, this survey paper provides a comprehensive overview of the existing edge computing systems and introduces representative projects. A comparison of open source tools is presented according to their applicability. Finally, we highlight energy efficiency and deep learning optimization of edge computing systems. Open issues for analyzing and designing an edge computing system are also studied in this survey.

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Music recommender systems (MRS) have experienced a boom in recent years, thanks to the emergence and success of online streaming services, which nowadays make available almost all music in the world at the user's fingertip. While today's MRS considerably help users to find interesting music in these huge catalogs, MRS research is still facing substantial challenges. In particular when it comes to build, incorporate, and evaluate recommendation strategies that integrate information beyond simple user--item interactions or content-based descriptors, but dig deep into the very essence of listener needs, preferences, and intentions, MRS research becomes a big endeavor and related publications quite sparse. The purpose of this trends and survey article is twofold. We first identify and shed light on what we believe are the most pressing challenges MRS research is facing, from both academic and industry perspectives. We review the state of the art towards solving these challenges and discuss its limitations. Second, we detail possible future directions and visions we contemplate for the further evolution of the field. The article should therefore serve two purposes: giving the interested reader an overview of current challenges in MRS research and providing guidance for young researchers by identifying interesting, yet under-researched, directions in the field.

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