Open Educational Resources (OERs) are openly licensed educational materials that are widely used for learning. Nowadays, many online learning repositories provide millions of OERs. Therefore, it is exceedingly difficult for learners to find the most appropriate OER among these resources. Subsequently, the precise OER metadata is critical for providing high-quality services such as search and recommendation. Moreover, metadata facilitates the process of automatic OER quality control as the continuously increasing number of OERs makes manual quality control extremely difficult. This work uses the metadata of 8,887 OERs to perform an exploratory data analysis on OER metadata. Accordingly, this work proposes metadata-based scoring and prediction models to anticipate the quality of OERs. Based on the results, our analysis demonstrated that OER metadata and OER content qualities are closely related, as we could detect high-quality OERs with an accuracy of 94.6%. Our model was also evaluated on 884 educational videos from Youtube to show its applicability on other educational repositories.
Online education platforms enable teachers to share a large number of educational resources such as questions to form exercises and quizzes for students. With large volumes of available questions, it is important to have an automated way to quantify their properties and intelligently select them for students, enabling effective and personalized learning experiences. In this work, we propose a framework for mining insights from educational questions at scale. We utilize the state-of-the-art Bayesian deep learning method, in particular partial variational auto-encoders (p-VAE), to analyze real students' answers to a large collection of questions. Based on p-VAE, we propose two novel metrics that quantify question quality and difficulty, respectively, and a personalized strategy to adaptively select questions for students. We apply our proposed framework to a real-world dataset with tens of thousands of questions and tens of millions of answers from an online education platform. Our framework not only demonstrates promising results in terms of statistical metrics but also obtains highly consistent results with domain experts' evaluation.
This paper studies the dynamics of opinion formation and polarization in social media. We investigate whether users' stance concerning contentious subjects is influenced by the online discussions they are exposed to and interactions with users supporting different stances. We set up a series of predictive exercises based on machine learning models. Users are described using several posting activities features capturing their overall activity levels, posting success, the reactions their posts attract from users of different stances, and the types of discussions in which they engage. Given the user description at present, the purpose is to predict their stance in the future. Using a dataset of Brexit discussions on the Reddit platform, we show that the activity features regularly outperform the textual baseline, confirming the link between exposure to discussion and opinion. We find that the most informative features relate to the stance composition of the discussion in which users prefer to engage.
Deep learning has penetrated all aspects of our lives and brought us great convenience. However, the process of building a high-quality deep learning system for a specific task is not only time-consuming but also requires lots of resources and relies on human expertise, which hinders the development of deep learning in both industry and academia. To alleviate this problem, a growing number of research projects focus on automated machine learning (AutoML). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study on the state-of-the-art AutoML. First, we introduce the AutoML techniques in details according to the machine learning pipeline. Then we summarize existing Neural Architecture Search (NAS) research, which is one of the most popular topics in AutoML. We also compare the models generated by NAS algorithms with those human-designed models. Finally, we present several open problems for future research.
We present open domain response generation with meta-words. A meta-word is a structured record that describes various attributes of a response, and thus allows us to explicitly model the one-to-many relationship within open domain dialogues and perform response generation in an explainable and controllable manner. To incorporate meta-words into generation, we enhance the sequence-to-sequence architecture with a goal tracking memory network that formalizes meta-word expression as a goal and manages the generation process to achieve the goal with a state memory panel and a state controller. Experimental results on two large-scale datasets indicate that our model can significantly outperform several state-of-the-art generation models in terms of response relevance, response diversity, accuracy of one-to-many modeling, accuracy of meta-word expression, and human evaluation.
Lots of learning tasks require dealing with graph data which contains rich relation information among elements. Modeling physics system, learning molecular fingerprints, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model learns from graph inputs. In other domains such as learning from non-structural data like texts and images, reasoning on extracted structures, like the dependency tree of sentences and the scene graph of images, is an important research topic which also needs graph reasoning models. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are connectionist models that capture the dependence of graphs via message passing between the nodes of graphs. Unlike standard neural networks, graph neural networks retain a state that can represent information from its neighborhood with arbitrary depth. Although the primitive GNNs have been found difficult to train for a fixed point, recent advances in network architectures, optimization techniques, and parallel computation have enabled successful learning with them. In recent years, systems based on graph convolutional network (GCN) and gated graph neural network (GGNN) have demonstrated ground-breaking performance on many tasks mentioned above. In this survey, we provide a detailed review over existing graph neural network models, systematically categorize the applications, and propose four open problems for future research.
The field of natural language processing has seen impressive progress in recent years, with neural network models replacing many of the traditional systems. A plethora of new models have been proposed, many of which are thought to be opaque compared to their feature-rich counterparts. This has led researchers to analyze, interpret, and evaluate neural networks in novel and more fine-grained ways. In this survey paper, we review analysis methods in neural language processing, categorize them according to prominent research trends, highlight existing limitations, and point to potential directions for future work.
We introduce a new method DOLORES for learning knowledge graph embeddings that effectively captures contextual cues and dependencies among entities and relations. First, we note that short paths on knowledge graphs comprising of chains of entities and relations can encode valuable information regarding their contextual usage. We operationalize this notion by representing knowledge graphs not as a collection of triples but as a collection of entity-relation chains, and learn embeddings for entities and relations using deep neural models that capture such contextual usage. In particular, our model is based on Bi-Directional LSTMs and learn deep representations of entities and relations from constructed entity-relation chains. We show that these representations can very easily be incorporated into existing models to significantly advance the state of the art on several knowledge graph prediction tasks like link prediction, triple classification, and missing relation type prediction (in some cases by at least 9.5%).
While large-scale knowledge graphs provide vast amounts of structured facts about entities, a short textual description can often be useful to succinctly characterize an entity and its type. Unfortunately, many knowledge graph entities lack such textual descriptions. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic memory-based network that generates a short open vocabulary description of an entity by jointly leveraging induced fact embeddings as well as the dynamic context of the generated sequence of words. We demonstrate the ability of our architecture to discern relevant information for more accurate generation of type description by pitting the system against several strong baselines.
Sentiment analysis is essential in many real-world applications such as stance detection, review analysis, recommendation system, and so on. Sentiment analysis becomes more difficult when the data is noisy and collected from social media. India is a multilingual country; people use more than one languages to communicate within themselves. The switching in between the languages is called code-switching or code-mixing, depending upon the type of mixing. This paper presents overview of the shared task on sentiment analysis of code-mixed data pairs of Hindi-English and Bengali-English collected from the different social media platform. The paper describes the task, dataset, evaluation, baseline and participant's systems.
We introduce a new task called Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (MNER) for noisy user-generated data such as tweets or Snapchat captions, which comprise short text with accompanying images. These social media posts often come in inconsistent or incomplete syntax and lexical notations with very limited surrounding textual contexts, bringing significant challenges for NER. To this end, we create a new dataset for MNER called SnapCaptions (Snapchat image-caption pairs submitted to public and crowd-sourced stories with fully annotated named entities). We then build upon the state-of-the-art Bi-LSTM word/character based NER models with 1) a deep image network which incorporates relevant visual context to augment textual information, and 2) a generic modality-attention module which learns to attenuate irrelevant modalities while amplifying the most informative ones to extract contexts from, adaptive to each sample and token. The proposed MNER model with modality attention significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art text-only NER models by successfully leveraging provided visual contexts, opening up potential applications of MNER on myriads of social media platforms.