Self-organization of complex morphological patterns from local interactions is a fascinating phenomenon in many natural and artificial systems. In the artificial world, typical examples of such morphogenetic systems are cellular automata. Yet, their mechanisms are often very hard to grasp and so far scientific discoveries of novel patterns have primarily been relying on manual tuning and ad hoc exploratory search. The problem of automated diversity-driven discovery in these systems was recently introduced [26, 61], highlighting that two key ingredients are autonomous exploration and unsupervised representation learning to describe "relevant" degrees of variations in the patterns. In this paper, we motivate the need for what we call Meta-diversity search, arguing that there is not a unique ground truth interesting diversity as it strongly depends on the final observer and its motives. Using a continuous game-of-life system for experiments, we provide empirical evidences that relying on monolithic architectures for the behavioral embedding design tends to bias the final discoveries (both for hand-defined and unsupervisedly-learned features) which are unlikely to be aligned with the interest of a final end-user. To address these issues, we introduce a novel dynamic and modular architecture that enables unsupervised learning of a hierarchy of diverse representations. Combined with intrinsically motivated goal exploration algorithms, we show that this system forms a discovery assistant that can efficiently adapt its diversity search towards preferences of a user using only a very small amount of user feedback.
Combinatorial optimization problems are notoriously challenging for neural networks, especially in the absence of labeled instances. This work proposes an unsupervised learning framework for CO problems on graphs that can provide integral solutions of certified quality. Inspired by Erdos' probabilistic method, we use a neural network to parametrize a probability distribution over sets. Crucially, we show that when the network is optimized w.r.t. a suitably chosen loss, the learned distribution contains, with controlled probability, a low-cost integral solution that obeys the constraints of the combinatorial problem. The probabilistic proof of existence is then derandomized to decode the desired solutions. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach to obtain valid solutions to the maximum clique problem and to perform local graph clustering. Our method achieves competitive results on both real datasets and synthetic hard instances.
In power systems, an asset class is a group of power equipment that has the same function and shares similar electrical or mechanical characteristics. Predicting failures for different asset classes is critical for electric utilities towards developing cost-effective asset management strategies. Previously, physical age based Weibull distribution has been widely used to failure prediction. However, this mathematical model cannot incorporate asset condition data such as inspection or testing results. As a result, the prediction cannot be very specific and accurate for individual assets. To solve this important problem, this paper proposes a novel and comprehensive data-driven approach based on asset condition data: K-means clustering as an unsupervised learning method is used to analyze the inner structure of historical asset condition data and produce the asset conditional ages; logistic regression as a supervised learning method takes in both asset physical ages and conditional ages to classify and predict asset statuses. Furthermore, an index called average aging rate is defined to quantify, track and estimate the relationship between asset physical age and conditional age. This approach was applied to an urban distribution system in West Canada to predict medium-voltage cable failures. Case studies and comparison with standard Weibull distribution are provided. The proposed approach demonstrates superior performance and practicality for predicting asset class failures in power systems.
This paper addresses the task of unsupervised learning of representations for action recognition in videos. Previous works proposed to utilize future prediction, or other domain-specific objectives to train a network, but achieved only limited success. In contrast, in the relevant field of image representation learning, simpler, discrimination-based methods have recently bridged the gap to fully-supervised performance. We first propose to adapt two top performing objectives in this class - instance recognition and local aggregation, to the video domain. In particular, the latter approach iterates between clustering the videos in the feature space of a network and updating it to respect the cluster with a non-parametric classification loss. We observe promising performance, but qualitative analysis shows that the learned representations fail to capture motion patterns, grouping the videos based on appearance. To mitigate this issue, we turn to the heuristic-based IDT descriptors, that were manually designed to encode motion patterns in videos. We form the clusters in the IDT space, using these descriptors as a an unsupervised prior in the iterative local aggregation algorithm. Our experiments demonstrates that this approach outperform prior work on UCF101 and HMDB51 action recognition benchmarks. We also qualitatively analyze the learned representations and show that they successfully capture video dynamics.
We present a work-flow which aims at capturing residents' abnormal activities through the passenger flow of elevator in multi-storey residence buildings. Camera and sensors (hall sensor, photoelectric sensor, gyro, accelerometer, barometer, and thermometer) with internet connection are mounted in elevator to collect image and data. Computer vision algorithms such as instance segmentation, multi-label recognition, embedding and clustering are applied to generalize passenger flow of elevator, i.e. how many people and what kinds of people get in and out of the elevator on each floor. More specifically in our implementation we propose GraftNet, a solution for fine-grained multi-label recognition task, to recognize human attributes, e.g. gender, age, appearance, and occupation. Then anomaly detection of unsupervised learning is hierarchically applied on the passenger flow data to capture abnormal or even illegal activities of the residents which probably bring safety hazard, e.g. drug dealing, pyramid sale gathering, prostitution, and over crowded residence. Experiment shows effects are there, and the captured records will be directly reported to our customer(property managers) for further confirmation.
We design a physics-aware auto-encoder to specifically reduce the dimensionality of solutions arising from convection-dominated nonlinear physical systems. Although existing nonlinear manifold learning methods seem to be compelling tools to reduce the dimensionality of data characterized by a large Kolmogorov n-width, they typically lack a straightforward mapping from the latent space to the high-dimensional physical space. Moreover, the realized latent variables are often hard to interpret. Therefore, many of these methods are often dismissed in the reduced order modeling of dynamical systems governed by the partial differential equations (PDEs). Accordingly, we propose an auto-encoder type nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm. The unsupervised learning problem trains a diffeomorphic spatio-temporal grid, that registers the output sequence of the PDEs on a non-uniform parameter/time-varying grid, such that the Kolmogorov n-width of the mapped data on the learned grid is minimized. We demonstrate the efficacy and interpretability of our approach to separate convection/advection from diffusion/scaling on various manufactured and physical systems.
This paper deals with the problem of 3D tracking, i.e., to find dense correspondences in a sequence of time-varying 3D shapes. Despite deep learning approaches have achieved promising performance for pairwise dense 3D shapes matching, it is a great challenge to generalize those approaches for the tracking of 3D time-varying geometries. In this paper, we aim at handling the problem of 3D tracking, which provides the tracking of the consecutive frames of 3D shapes. We propose a novel unsupervised 3D shape registration framework named DeepTracking-Net, which uses the deep neural networks (DNNs) as auxiliary functions to produce spatially and temporally continuous displacement fields for 3D tracking of objects in a temporal order. Our key novelty is that we present a novel temporal-aware correspondence descriptor (TCD) that captures spatio-temporal essence from consecutive 3D point cloud frames. Specifically, our DeepTracking-Net starts with optimizing a randomly initialized latent TCD. The TCD is then decoded to regress a continuous flow (i.e. a displacement vector field) which assigns a motion vector to every point of time-varying 3D shapes. Our DeepTracking-Net jointly optimizes TCDs and DNNs' weights towards the minimization of an unsupervised alignment loss. Experiments on both simulated and real data sets demonstrate that our unsupervised DeepTracking-Net outperforms the current supervised state-of-the-art method. In addition, we prepare a new synthetic 3D data, named SynMotions, to the 3D tracking and recognition community.
Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proven to be a powerful unsupervised learning method for uncovering hidden features in complex and noisy data sets with applications in data mining, text recognition, dimension reduction, face recognition, anomaly detection, blind source separation, and many other fields. An important input for NMF is the latent dimensionality of the data, that is, the number of hidden features, K, present in the explored data set. Unfortunately, this quantity is rarely known a priori. We utilize a supervised machine learning approach in combination with a recent method for model determination, called NMFk, to determine the number of hidden features automatically. NMFk performs a set of NMF simulations on an ensemble of matrices, obtained by bootstrapping the initial data set, and determines which K produces stable groups of latent features that reconstruct the initial data set well. We then train a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier network to determine the correct number of latent features utilizing the statistics and characteristics of the NMF solutions, obtained from NMFk. In order to train the MLP classifier, a training set of 58,660 matrices with predetermined latent features were factorized with NMFk. The MLP classifier in conjunction with NMFk maintains a greater than 95% success rate when applied to a held out test set. Additionally, when applied to two well-known benchmark data sets, the swimmer and MIT face data, NMFk/MLP correctly recovered the established number of hidden features. Finally, we compared the accuracy of our method to the ARD, AIC and Stability-based methods.