计算学习理论(Computational learning theory)研究的是关于通过“计算”来进行“学习”的理论,即关于机器学习的理论基础,其目的是分析学习任务的困难本质,为学习算法提供理论保证,并根据分析结果指导算法设计。

To measure the quality of a set of vector quantization points a means of measuring the distance between a random point and its quantization is required. Common metrics such as the {\em Hamming} and {\em Euclidean} metrics, while mathematically simple, are inappropriate for comparing natural signals such as speech or images. In this paper it is shown how an {\em environment} of functions on an input space $X$ induces a {\em canonical distortion measure} (CDM) on X. The depiction 'canonical" is justified because it is shown that optimizing the reconstruction error of X with respect to the CDM gives rise to optimal piecewise constant approximations of the functions in the environment. The CDM is calculated in closed form for several different function classes. An algorithm for training neural networks to implement the CDM is presented along with some encouraging experimental results.

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Zeroth-order optimization is the process of minimizing an objective $f(x)$, given oracle access to evaluations at adaptively chosen inputs $x$. In this paper, we present two simple yet powerful GradientLess Descent (GLD) algorithms that do not rely on an underlying gradient estimate and are numerically stable. We analyze our algorithm from a novel geometric perspective and present a novel analysis that shows convergence within an $\epsilon$-ball of the optimum in $O(kQ\log(n)\log(R/\epsilon))$ evaluations, for {\it any monotone transform} of a smooth and strongly convex objective with latent dimension $k < n$, where the input dimension is $n$, $R$ is the diameter of the input space and $Q$ is the condition number. Our rates are the first of its kind to be both 1) poly-logarithmically dependent on dimensionality and 2) invariant under monotone transformations. We further leverage our geometric perspective to show that our analysis is optimal. Both monotone invariance and its ability to utilize a low latent dimensionality are key to the empirical success of our algorithms, as demonstrated on BBOB and MuJoCo benchmarks.

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Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), the mathematical framework underlying most algorithms in Reinforcement Learning (RL), are often used in a way that wrongfully assumes that the state of an agent's environment does not change during action selection. As RL systems based on MDPs begin to find application in real-world safety critical situations, this mismatch between the assumptions underlying classical MDPs and the reality of real-time computation may lead to undesirable outcomes. In this paper, we introduce a new framework, in which states and actions evolve simultaneously and show how it is related to the classical MDP formulation. We analyze existing algorithms under the new real-time formulation and show why they are suboptimal when used in real-time. We then use those insights to create a new algorithm Real-Time Actor-Critic (RTAC) that outperforms the existing state-of-the-art continuous control algorithm Soft Actor-Critic both in real-time and non-real-time settings. Code and videos can be found at https://github.com/rmst/rtrl.

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Detecting the semantic types of data columns in relational tables is important for various data preparation and information retrieval tasks such as data cleaning, schema matching, data discovery, and semantic search. However, existing detection approaches either perform poorly with dirty data, support only a limited number of semantic types, fail to incorporate the table context of columns or rely on large sample sizes in the training data. We introduce Sato, a hybrid machine learning model to automatically detect the semantic types of columns in tables, exploiting the signals from the context as well as the column values. Sato combines a deep learning model trained on a large-scale table corpus with topic modeling and structured prediction to achieve support-weighted and macro average F1 scores of 0.901 and 0.973, respectively, exceeding the state-of-the-art performance by a significant margin. We extensively analyze the overall and per-type performance of Sato, discussing how individual modeling components, as well as feature categories, contribute to its performance.

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In healthcare, the highest risk individuals for morbidity and mortality are rarely those with the greatest modifiable risk. By contrast, many machine learning formulations implicitly attend to the highest risk individuals. We focus on this problem in point processes, a popular modeling technique for the analysis of the temporal event sequences in electronic health records (EHR) data with applications in risk stratification and risk score systems. We show that optimization of the log-likelihood function also gives disproportionate attention to high risk individuals and leads to poor prediction results for low risk individuals compared to ones at high risk. We characterize the problem and propose an adjusted log-likelihood formulation as a new objective for point processes. We demonstrate the benefits of our method in simulations and in EHR data of patients admitted to the critical care unit for intracerebral hemorrhage.

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Noise suppression systems generally produce output speech with compromised quality. We propose to utilize the high quality speech generation capability of neural vocoders for noise suppression. We use a neural network to predict clean mel-spectrogram features from noisy speech and then compare two neural vocoders, WaveNet and WaveGlow, for synthesizing clean speech from the predicted mel spectrogram. Both WaveNet and WaveGlow achieve better subjective and objective quality scores than the source separation model Chimera++. Further, WaveNet and WaveGlow also achieve significantly better subjective quality ratings than the oracle Wiener mask. Moreover, we observe that between WaveNet and WaveGlow, WaveNet achieves the best subjective quality scores, although at the cost of much slower waveform generation.

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Many existing traffic signal controllers are either simple adaptive controllers based on sensors placed around traffic intersections, or optimized by traffic engineers on a fixed schedule. Optimizing traffic controllers is time consuming and usually require experienced traffic engineers. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) in this context. However, most of the studies do not consider realistic settings that could seamlessly transition into deployment. In this paper, we propose a DRL-based adaptive traffic signal control framework that explicitly considers realistic traffic scenarios, sensors, and physical constraints. In this framework, we also propose a novel reward function that shows significantly improved traffic performance compared to the typical baseline pre-timed and fully-actuated traffic signals controllers. The framework is implemented and validated on a simulation platform emulating real-life traffic scenarios and sensor data streams.

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Multi-output Gaussian processes (MOGPs) leverage the flexibility and interpretability of GPs while capturing structure across outputs, which is desirable, for example, in spatio-temporal modelling. The key problem with MOGPs is the cubic computational scaling in the number of both inputs (e.g., time points or locations), n, and outputs, p. Current methods reduce this to O(n^3 m^3), where m < p is the desired degrees of freedom. This computational cost, however, is still prohibitive in many applications. To address this limitation, we present the Orthogonal Linear Mixing Model (OLMM), an MOGP in which exact inference scales linearly in m: O(n^3 m). This advance opens up a wide range of real-world tasks and can be combined with existing GP approximations in a plug-and-play way as demonstrated in the paper. Additionally, the paper organises the existing disparate literature on MOGP models into a simple taxonomy called the Mixing Model Hierarchy (MMH).

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Domain Generation Algorithms (DGAs) are frequently used to generate large numbers of domains for use by botnets. These domains are often used as rendezvous points for the servers that malware has command and control over. There are many algorithms that are used to generate domains, but many of these algorithms are simplistic and are very easy to detect using classical machine learning techniques. In this paper, three different variants of generative adversarial networks (GANs) are used to improve domain generation by making the domains more difficult for machine learning algorithms to detect. The domains generated by traditional DGAs and the GAN based DGA are then compared by using state of the art machine learning based DGA classifiers. The results show that the GAN based DGAs gets detected by the DGA classifiers significantly less than the traditional DGAs. An analysis of the GAN variants is also performed to show which GAN variant produces the most usable domains. As verified by testing results and analysis, the Wasserstein GAN with Gradient Penalty (WGANGP), is the best GAN variant to use as a DGA.

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We demonstrate model-based, visual robot manipulation of linear deformable objects. Our approach is based on a state-space representation of the physical system that the robot aims to control. This choice has multiple advantages, including the ease of incorporating physical priors in the dynamics model and perception model, and the ease of planning manipulation actions. In addition, physical states can naturally represent object instances of different appearances. Therefore, dynamics in the state space can be learned in one setting and directly used in other visually different settings. This is in contrast to dynamics learned in pixel space or latent space, where generalization to visual differences are not guaranteed. Challenges in taking the state-space approach are the estimation of the high-dimensional state of a deformable object from raw images, where annotations are very expensive on real data, and finding a dynamics model that is both accurate, generalizable, and efficient to compute. We are the first to demonstrate self-supervised training of rope state estimation on real images, without requiring expensive annotations. This is achieved by our novel differentiable renderer and image loss, which are generalizable across a wide range of visual appearances. With estimated rope states, we train a fast and differentiable neural network dynamics model that encodes the physics of mass-spring systems. Our method has a higher accuracy in predicting future states compared to models that do not involve explicit state estimation and do not use any physics prior. We also show that our approach achieves more efficient manipulation, both in simulation and on a real robot, when used within a model predictive controller.

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Traditional speech enhancement systems produce speech with compromised quality. Here we propose to use the high quality speech generation capability of neural vocoders for better quality speech enhancement. We term this parametric resynthesis (PR). In previous work, we showed that PR systems generate high quality speech for a single speaker using two neural vocoders, WaveNet and WaveGlow. Both these vocoders are traditionally speaker dependent. Here we first show that when trained on data from enough speakers, these vocoders can generate speech from unseen speakers, both male and female, with similar quality as seen speakers in training. Next using these two vocoders and a new vocoder LPCNet, we evaluate the noise reduction quality of PR on unseen speakers and show that objective signal and overall quality is higher than the state-of-the-art speech enhancement systems Wave-U-Net, Wavenet-denoise, and SEGAN. Moreover, in subjective quality, multiple-speaker PR out-performs the oracle Wiener mask.

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Chest radiography is an extremely powerful imaging modality, allowing for a detailed inspection of a patient's thorax, but requiring specialized training for proper interpretation. With the advent of high performance general purpose computer vision algorithms, the accurate automated analysis of chest radiographs is becoming increasingly of interest to researchers. However, a key challenge in the development of these techniques is the lack of sufficient data. Here we describe MIMIC-CXR-JPG v2.0.0, a large dataset of 377,110 chest x-rays associated with 227,827 imaging studies sourced from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2011 - 2016. Images are provided with 14 labels derived from two natural language processing tools applied to the corresponding free-text radiology reports. MIMIC-CXR-JPG is derived entirely from the MIMIC-CXR database, and aims to provide a convenient processed version of MIMIC-CXR, as well as to provide a standard reference for data splits and image labels. All images have been de-identified to protect patient privacy. The dataset is made freely available to facilitate and encourage a wide range of research in medical computer vision.

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We present the application of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) to the task of astronomical image classification using a quantum annealer built by D-Wave Systems. Morphological analysis of galaxies provides critical information for studying their formation and evolution across cosmic time scales. We compress the images using principal component analysis to fit a representation on the quantum hardware. Then, we train RBMs with discriminative and generative algorithms, including contrastive divergence and hybrid generative-discriminative approaches. We compare these methods to Quantum Annealing (QA), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs Sampling, Simulated Annealing (SA) as well as machine learning algorithms like gradient boosted decision trees. We find that RBMs implemented on D-wave hardware perform well, and that they show some classification performance advantages on small datasets, but they don't offer a broadly strategic advantage for this task. During this exploration, we analyzed the steps required for Boltzmann sampling with the D-Wave 2000Q, including a study of temperature estimation, and examined the impact of qubit noise by comparing and contrasting the original D-Wave 2000Q to the lower-noise version recently made available. While these analyses ultimately had minimal impact on the performance of the RBMs, we include them for reference.

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The growing role that artificial intelligence and specifically machine learning is playing in shaping the future of wireless communications has opened up many new and intriguing research directions. This paper motivates the research in the novel direction of \textit{vision-aided wireless communications}, which aims at leveraging visual sensory information in tackling wireless communication problems. Like any new research direction driven by machine learning, obtaining a development dataset poses the first and most important challenge to vision-aided wireless communications. This paper addresses this issue by introducing the Vision-Wireless (ViWi) dataset framework. It is developed to be a parametric, systematic, and scalable data generation framework. It utilizes advanced 3D-modeling and ray-tracing softwares to generate high-fidelity synthetic wireless and vision data samples for the same scenes. The result is a framework that does not only offer a way to generate training and testing datasets but helps provide a common ground on which the quality of different machine learning-powered solutions could be assessed.

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In the last decade, deep learning (DL) has outperformed model-based and statistical approaches in predicting the remaining useful life (RUL) of machinery in the context of condition-based maintenance. One of the major drawbacks of DL is that it heavily depends on a large amount of labeled data, which are typically expensive and time-consuming to obtain, especially in industrial applications. Scarce training data lead to uncertain estimates of the model's parameters, which in turn result in poor prognostic performance. Quantifying this parameter uncertainty is important in order to determine how reliable the prediction is. Traditional DL techniques such as neural networks are incapable of capturing the uncertainty in the training data, thus they are overconfident about their estimates. On the contrary, Bayesian deep learning has recently emerged as a promising solution to account for uncertainty in the training process, achieving state-of-the-art performance in many classification and regression tasks. In this work Bayesian DL techniques such as Bayesian dense neural networks and Bayesian convolutional neural networks are applied to RUL estimation and compared to their frequentist counterparts from the literature. The effectiveness of the proposed models is verified on the popular C-MAPSS dataset. Furthermore, parameter uncertainty is quantified and used to gain additional insight into the data.

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