用已知某种或某些特性的样本作为训练集,以建立一个数学模型(如模式识别中的判别模型,人工神经网络法中的权重模型等),再用已建立的模型来预测未知样本,此种方法称为有监督学习。是最常见的机器学习方法。

This work aims to examine one of the cornerstone problems of Musical Instrument Recognition, in particular instrument classification. IRMAS (Instrument recognition in Musical Audio Signals) data set is chosen. The data includes music obtained from various decades in the last century, thus having a wide variety in audio quality. We have presented a very concise summary of past work in this domain. Having implemented various supervised learning algorithms for this classification task, SVM classifier has outperformed the other state-of-the-art models with an accuracy of 79%. The classifier had a major challenge distinguishing between flute and organ. We also implemented Unsupervised techniques out of which Hierarchical Clustering has performed well. We have included most of the code (jupyter notebook) for easy reproducibility.

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Few-shot supervised learning leverages experience from previous learning tasks to solve new tasks where only a few labelled examples are available. One successful line of approach to this problem is to use an encoder-decoder meta-learning pipeline, whereby labelled data in a task is encoded to produce task representation, and this representation is used to condition the decoder to make predictions on unlabelled data. We propose an approach that uses this pipeline with two important features. 1) We use infinite-dimensional functional representations of the task rather than fixed-dimensional representations. 2) We iteratively apply functional updates to the representation. We show that our approach can be interpreted as extending functional gradient descent, and delivers performance that is comparable to or outperforms previous state-of-the-art on few-shot classification benchmarks such as miniImageNet and tieredImageNet.

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Machine learning techniques are currently used extensively for automating various cybersecurity tasks. Most of these techniques utilize supervised learning algorithms that rely on training the algorithm to classify incoming data into different categories, using data encountered in the relevant domain. A critical vulnerability of these algorithms is that they are susceptible to adversarial attacks where a malicious entity called an adversary deliberately alters the training data to misguide the learning algorithm into making classification errors. Adversarial attacks could render the learning algorithm unsuitable to use and leave critical systems vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks. Our paper provides a detailed survey of the state-of-the-art techniques that are used to make a machine learning algorithm robust against adversarial attacks using the computational framework of game theory. We also discuss open problems and challenges and possible directions for further research that would make deep machine learning-based systems more robust and reliable for cybersecurity tasks.

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Although there have been many solutions applied, the safety challenges related to the password security mechanism are not reduced. The reason for this is that while the means and tools to support password attacks are becoming more and more abundant, the number of transaction systems through the Internet is increasing, and new services systems appear. For example, IoT also uses password-based authentication. In this context, consolidating password-based authentication mechanisms is critical, but monitoring measures for timely detection of attacks also play an important role in this battle. The password attack detection solutions being used need to be supplemented and improved to meet the new situation. In this paper we propose a solution that automatically detects online password attacks in a way that is based solely on the network, using unsupervised learning techniques and protected application orientation. Our solution, therefore, minimizes dependence on the factors encountered by host-based or supervised learning solutions. The certainty of the solution comes from using the results of an in-depth analysis of attack characteristics to build the detection capacity of the mechanism. The solution was implemented experimentally on the real system and gave positive results.

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This paper discusses the fourth year of the ``Sentiment Analysis in Twitter Task''. SemEval-2016 Task 4 comprises five subtasks, three of which represent a significant departure from previous editions. The first two subtasks are reruns from prior years and ask to predict the overall sentiment, and the sentiment towards a topic in a tweet. The three new subtasks focus on two variants of the basic ``sentiment classification in Twitter'' task. The first variant adopts a five-point scale, which confers an ordinal character to the classification task. The second variant focuses on the correct estimation of the prevalence of each class of interest, a task which has been called quantification in the supervised learning literature. The task continues to be very popular, attracting a total of 43 teams.

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When interacting with highly dynamic environments, scene flow allows autonomous systems to reason about the non-rigid motion of multiple independent objects. This is of particular interest in the field of autonomous driving, in which many cars, people, bicycles, and other objects need to be accurately tracked. Current state of the art methods require annotated scene flow data from autonomous driving scenes to train scene flow networks with supervised learning. As an alternative, we present a method of training scene flow that uses two self-supervised losses, based on nearest neighbors and cycle consistency. These self-supervised losses allow us to train our method on large unlabeled autonomous driving datasets; the resulting method matches current state-of-the-art supervised performance using no real world annotations and exceeds state-of-the-art performance when combining our self-supervised approach with supervised learning on a smaller labeled dataset.

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Tensor networks have found a wide use in a variety of applications in physics and computer science, recently leading to both theoretical insights as well as practical algorithms in machine learning. In this work we explore the connection between tensor networks and probabilistic graphical models, and show that it motivates the definition of generalized tensor networks where information from a tensor can be copied and reused in other parts of the network. We discuss the relationship between generalized tensor network architectures used in quantum physics, such as string-bond states, and architectures commonly used in machine learning. We provide an algorithm to train these networks in a supervised-learning context and show that they overcome the limitations of regular tensor networks in higher dimensions, while keeping the computation efficient. A method to combine neural networks and tensor networks as part of a common deep learning architecture is also introduced. We benchmark our algorithm for several generalized tensor network architectures on the task of classifying images and sounds, and show that they outperform previously introduced tensor-network algorithms. The models we consider also have a natural implementation on a quantum computer and may guide the development of near-term quantum machine learning architectures.

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Most of the data-driven approaches applied to bearing fault diagnosis up to date are established in the supervised learning paradigm, which usually requires a large set of labeled data collected a priori. In practical applications, however, obtaining accurate labels based on real-time bearing conditions can be far more challenging than simply collecting a huge amount of unlabeled data using various sensors. In this paper, we thus propose a semi-supervised learning approach for bearing anomaly detection using variational autoencoder (VAE) based deep generative models, which allows for effective utilization of dataset when only a small subset of data have labels. Finally, a series of experiments is performed using both the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) bearing dataset and the University of Cincinnati's Center for Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed semi-supervised learning scheme greatly outperforms two mainstream semi-supervised learning approaches and a baseline supervised convolutional neural network approach, with the overall accuracy improvement ranging between 3\% to 30\% using different number of labeled samples.

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