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Visually grounded speech models learn from images paired with spoken captions. By tagging images with soft text labels using a trained visual classifier with a fixed vocabulary, previous work has shown that it is possible to train a model that can detect whether a particular text keyword occurs in speech utterances or not. Here we investigate whether visually grounded speech models can also do keyword localisation: predicting where, within an utterance, a given textual keyword occurs without any explicit text-based or alignment supervision. We specifically consider whether incorporating attention into a convolutional model is beneficial for localisation. Although absolute localisation performance with visually supervised models is still modest (compared to using unordered bag-of-word text labels for supervision), we show that attention provides a large gain in performance over previous visually grounded models. As in many other speech-image studies, we find that many of the incorrect localisations are due to semantic confusions, e.g. locating the word 'backstroke' for the query keyword 'swimming'.

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Visually grounded speech models learn from images paired with spoken captions. By tagging images with soft text labels using a trained visual classifier with a fixed vocabulary, previous work has shown that it is possible to train a model that can detect whether a particular text keyword occurs in speech utterances or not. Here we investigate whether visually grounded speech models can also do keyword localisation: predicting where, within an utterance, a given textual keyword occurs without any explicit text-based or alignment supervision. We specifically consider whether incorporating attention into a convolutional model is beneficial for localisation. Although absolute localisation performance with visually supervised models is still modest (compared to using unordered bag-of-word text labels for supervision), we show that attention provides a large gain in performance over previous visually grounded models. As in many other speech-image studies, we find that many of the incorrect localisations are due to semantic confusions, e.g. locating the word 'backstroke' for the query keyword 'swimming'.

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