Regardless of the usage of deep learning and handcrafted methods, the dynamic information from videos and the effect of cross-ethnicity are rarely considered in face anti-spoofing. In this work, we propose a static-dynamic fusion mechanism for multi-modal face anti-spoofing. Inspired by motion divergences between real and fake faces, we incorporate the dynamic image calculated by rank pooling with static information into a conventional neural network (CNN) for each modality (i.e., RGB, Depth and infrared (IR)). Then, we develop a partially shared fusion method to learn complementary information from multiple modalities. Furthermore, in order to study the generalization capability of the proposal in terms of cross-ethnicity attacks and unknown spoofs, we introduce the largest public cross-ethnicity Face Anti-spoofing (CASIA-CeFA) dataset, covering 3 ethnicities, 3 modalities, 1607 subjects, and 2D plus 3D attack types. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results on CASIA-CeFA, CASIA-SURF, OULU-NPU and SiW.
Given a target image as query, person re-identification systems retrieve a ranked list of candidate matches on a per-camera basis. In deployed systems, a human operator scans these lists and labels sighted targets by touch or mouse-based selection. However, classical re-id approaches generate per-camera lists independently. Therefore, target identifications by operator in a subset of cameras cannot be utilized to improve ranking of the target in remaining set of network cameras. To address this shortcoming, we propose a novel sequential multi-camera re-id approach. The proposed approach can accommodate human operator inputs and provides early gains via a monotonic improvement in target ranking. At the heart of our approach is a fusion function which operates on deep feature representations of query and candidate matches. We formulate an optimization procedure custom-designed to incrementally improve query representation. Since existing evaluation methods cannot be directly adopted to our setting, we also propose two novel evaluation protocols. The results on two large-scale re-id datasets (Market-1501, DukeMTMC-reID) demonstrate that our multi-camera method significantly outperforms baselines and other popular feature fusion schemes. Additionally, we conduct a comparative subject-based study of human operator performance. The superior operator performance enabled by our approach makes a compelling case for its integration into deployable video-surveillance systems.
Robust machine learning is currently one of the most prominent topics which could potentially help shaping a future of advanced AI platforms that not only perform well in average cases but also in worst cases or adverse situations. Despite the long-term vision, however, existing studies on black-box adversarial attacks are still restricted to very specific settings of threat models (e.g., single distortion metric and restrictive assumption on target model's feedback to queries) and/or suffer from prohibitively high query complexity. To push for further advances in this field, we introduce a general framework based on an operator splitting method, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to devise efficient, robust black-box attacks that work with various distortion metrics and feedback settings without incurring high query complexity. Due to the black-box nature of the threat model, the proposed ADMM solution framework is integrated with zeroth-order (ZO) optimization and Bayesian optimization (BO), and thus is applicable to the gradient-free regime. This results in two new black-box adversarial attack generation methods, ZO-ADMM and BO-ADMM. Our empirical evaluations on image classification datasets show that our proposed approaches have much lower function query complexities compared to state-of-the-art attack methods, but achieve very competitive attack success rates.
Convolutional neural network (CNN) and its variants have led to many state-of-art results in various fields. However, a clear theoretical understanding about them is still lacking. Recently, multi-layer convolutional sparse coding (ML-CSC) has been proposed and proved to equal such simply stacked networks (plain networks). Here, we think three factors in each layer of it including the initialization, the dictionary design and the number of iterations greatly affect the performance of ML-CSC. Inspired by these considerations, we propose two novel multi-layer models--residual convolutional sparse coding model (Res-CSC) and mixed-scale dense convolutional sparse coding model (MSD-CSC), which have close relationship with the residual neural network (ResNet) and mixed-scale (dilated) dense neural network (MSDNet), respectively. Mathematically, we derive the shortcut connection in ResNet as a special case of a new forward propagation rule on ML-CSC. We find a theoretical interpretation of the dilated convolution and dense connection in MSDNet by analyzing MSD-CSC, which gives a clear mathematical understanding about them. We implement the iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA) and its fast version to solve Res-CSC and MSD-CSC, which can employ the unfolding operation for further improvements. At last, extensive numerical experiments and comparison with competing methods demonstrate their effectiveness using three typical datasets.
Point cloud analysis without pose priors is very challenging in real applications, as the orientations of point clouds are often unknown. In this paper, we propose a brand new point-set learning framework PRIN, namely, Pointwise Rotation-Invariant Network, focusing on rotation-invariant feature extraction in point clouds analysis. We construct spherical signals by Density Aware Adaptive Sampling to deal with distorted point distributions in spherical space. In addition, we propose Spherical Voxel Convolution and Point Re-sampling to extract rotation-invariant features for each point. Our network can be applied to tasks ranging from object classification, part segmentation, to 3D feature matching and label alignment. We show that, on the dataset with randomly rotated point clouds, PRIN demonstrates better performance than state-of-the-art methods without any data augmentation. We also provide theoretical analysis for the rotation-invariance achieved by our methods.
We recover a video of the motion taking place in a hidden scene by observing changes in indirect illumination in a nearby uncalibrated visible region. We solve this problem by factoring the observed video into a matrix product between the unknown hidden scene video and an unknown light transport matrix. This task is extremely ill-posed, as any non-negative factorization will satisfy the data. Inspired by recent work on the Deep Image Prior, we parameterize the factor matrices using randomly initialized convolutional neural networks trained in a one-off manner, and show that this results in decompositions that reflect the true motion in the hidden scene.
The key challenge in photorealistic style transfer is that an algorithm should faithfully transfer the style of a reference photo to a content photo while the generated image should look like one captured by a camera. Although several photorealistic style transfer algorithms have been proposed, they need to rely on post- and/or pre-processing to make the generated images look photorealistic. If we disable the additional processing, these algorithms would fail to produce plausible photorealistic stylization in terms of detail preservation and photorealism. In this work, we propose an effective solution to these issues. Our method consists of a construction step (C-step) to build a photorealistic stylization network and a pruning step (P-step) for acceleration. In the C-step, we propose a dense auto-encoder named PhotoNet based on a carefully designed pre-analysis. PhotoNet integrates a feature aggregation module (BFA) and instance normalized skip links (INSL). To generate faithful stylization, we introduce multiple style transfer modules in the decoder and INSLs. PhotoNet significantly outperforms existing algorithms in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness. In the P-step, we adopt a neural architecture search method to accelerate PhotoNet. We propose an automatic network pruning framework in the manner of teacher-student learning for photorealistic stylization. The network architecture named PhotoNAS resulted from the search achieves significant acceleration over PhotoNet while keeping the stylization effects almost intact. We conduct extensive experiments on both image and video transfer. The results show that our method can produce favorable results while achieving 20-30 times acceleration in comparison with the existing state-of-the-art approaches. It is worth noting that the proposed algorithm accomplishes better performance without any pre- or post-processing.
Learning from Demonstrations (LfD) via Behavior Cloning (BC) works well on multiple complex tasks. However, a limitation of the typical LfD approach is that it requires expert demonstrations for all scenarios, including those in which the algorithm is already well-trained. The recently proposed Learning from Interventions (LfI) overcomes this limitation by using an expert overseer. The expert overseer only intervenes when it suspects that an unsafe action is about to be taken. Although LfI significantly improves over LfD, the state-of-the-art LfI fails to account for delay caused by the expert's reaction time and only learns short-term behavior. We address these limitations by 1) interpolating the expert's interventions back in time, and 2) by splitting the policy into two hierarchical levels, one that generates sub-goals for the future and another that generates actions to reach those desired sub-goals. This sub-goal prediction forces the algorithm to learn long-term behavior while also being robust to the expert's reaction time. Our experiments show that LfI using sub-goals in a hierarchical policy framework trains faster and achieves better asymptotic performance than typical LfD.