Jupyter Notebook是以网页的形式打开,可以在网页页面中直接编写代码和运行代码,代码的运行结果也会直接在代码块下显示的程序。如在编程过程中需要编写说明文档,可在同一个页面中直接编写,便于作及时的说明和解释。


Natural language interfaces (NLIs) have shown great promise for visual data analysis, allowing people to flexibly specify and interact with visualizations. However, developing visualization NLIs remains a challenging task, requiring low-level implementation of natural language processing (NLP) techniques as well as knowledge of visual analytic tasks and visualization design. We present NL4DV, a toolkit for natural language-driven data visualization. NL4DV is a Python package that takes as input a tabular dataset and a natural language query about that dataset. In response, the toolkit returns an analytic specification modeled as a JSON object containing data attributes, analytic tasks, and a list of Vega-Lite specifications relevant to the input query. In doing so, NL4DV aids visualization developers who may not have a background in NLP, enabling them to create new visualization NLIs or incorporate natural language input within their existing systems. We demonstrate NL4DV's usage and capabilities through four examples: 1) rendering visualizations using natural language in a Jupyter notebook, 2) developing a NLI to specify and edit Vega-Lite charts, 3) recreating data ambiguity widgets from the DataTone system, and 4) incorporating speech input to create a multimodal visualization system.