Named entity recognition (NER) is the task to identify text spans that mention named entities, and to classify them into predefined categories such as person, location, organization etc. NER serves as the basis for a variety of natural language applications such as question answering, text summarization, and machine translation. Although early NER systems are successful in producing decent recognition accuracy, they often require much human effort in carefully designing rules or features. In recent years, deep learning, empowered by continuous real-valued vector representations and semantic composition through nonlinear processing, has been employed in NER systems, yielding stat-of-the-art performance. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on existing deep learning techniques for NER. We first introduce NER resources, including tagged NER corpora and off-the-shelf NER tools. Then, we systematically categorize existing works based on a taxonomy along three axes: distributed representations for input, context encoder, and tag decoder. Next, we survey the most representative methods for recent applied techniques of deep learning in new NER problem settings and applications. Finally, we present readers with the challenges faced by NER systems and outline future directions in this area.
Exact null distributions of goodness-of-fit test statistics are generally challenging to obtain in tractable forms. Practitioners are therefore usually obliged to rely on asymptotic null distributions or Monte Carlo methods, either in the form of a lookup table or carried out on demand, to apply a goodness-of-fit test. Stephens (1970) provided remarkable simple and useful transformations of several classic goodness-of-fit test statistics that stabilized their exact-$n$ critical values for varying sample sizes $n$. However, detail on the accuracy of these and subsequent transformations in yielding exact $p$-values, or even deep understanding on the derivation of several transformations, is still scarce nowadays. We illuminate and automatize, using modern tools, the latter stabilization approach to (i) expand its scope of applicability and (ii) yield semi-continuous exact $p$-values, as opposed to exact critical values for fixed significance levels. We show improvements on the stabilization accuracy of the exact null distributions of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cram\'er-von Mises, Anderson-Darling, Kuiper, and Watson test statistics. In addition, we provide a parameter-dependent exact-$n$ stabilization for several novel statistics for testing uniformity on the hypersphere of arbitrary dimension. A data application in astronomy illustrates the benefits of the advocated stabilization for quickly analyzing small-to-moderate sequentially-measured samples.