条件随机域(场)(conditional random fields,简称 CRF,或CRFs),是一种判别式概率模型,是随机场的一种,常用于标注或分析序列资料,如自然语言文字或是生物序列。 如同马尔可夫随机场,条件随机场为具有无向的图模型,图中的顶点代表随机变量,顶点间的连线代表随机变量间的相依关系,在条件随机场中,随机变量 Y 的分布为条件机率,给定的观察值则为随机变量 X。原则上,条件随机场的图模型布局是可以任意给定的,一般常用的布局是链结式的架构,链结式架构不论在训练(training)、推论(inference)、或是解码(decoding)上,都存在效率较高的算法可供演算。

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Very-high-resolution (VHR) images can provide abundant ground details and spatial geometric information. Change detection in multi-temporal VHR images plays a significant role in urban expansion and area internal change analysis. Nevertheless, traditional change detection methods can neither take full advantage of spatial context information nor cope with the complex internal heterogeneity of VHR images. In this paper, a powerful feature extraction model entitled multi-scale feature convolution unit (MFCU) is adopted for change detection in multi-temporal VHR images. MFCU can extract multi-scale spatial-spectral features in the same layer. Based on the unit two novel deep siamese convolutional neural networks, called as deep siamese multi-scale convolutional network (DSMS-CN) and deep siamese multi-scale fully convolutional network (DSMS-FCN), are designed for unsupervised and supervised change detection, respectively. For unsupervised change detection, an automatic pre-classification is implemented to obtain reliable training samples, then DSMS-CN fits the statistical distribution of changed and unchanged areas from selected training samples through MFCU modules and deep siamese architecture. For supervised change detection, the end-to-end deep fully convolutional network DSMS-FCN is trained in any size of multi-temporal VHR images, and directly outputs the binary change map. In addition, for the purpose of solving the inaccurate localization problem, the fully connected conditional random field (FC-CRF) is combined with DSMS-FCN to refine the results. The experimental results with challenging data sets confirm that the two proposed architectures perform better than the state-of-the-art methods.

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