拉普拉斯特征映射 是用局部的角度去构建数据之间的关系。如果两个数据实例i和j很相似,那么i和j在降维后目标子空间中应该尽量接近。它的直观思想是希望相互间有关系的点(在图中相连的点)在降维后的空间中尽可能的靠近。Laplacian Eigenmaps可以反映出数据内在的流形结构。

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We use European football performance data to select teams to form the proposed European football Super League, using only unsupervised techniques. We first used random forest regression to select important variables predicting goal difference, which we used to calculate the Euclidian distances between teams. Creating a Laplacian eigenmap, we bisected the Fielder vector to identify the five major European football leagues' natural clusters. Our results showed how an unsupervised approach could successfully identify four clusters based on five basic performance metrics: shots, shots on target, shots conceded, possession, and pass success. The top two clusters identify those teams who dominate their respective leagues and are the best candidates to create the most competitive elite super league.

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