信息推荐,是指根据用户的习惯、偏好或兴趣,从不断到来的大规模信息中识别满足用户兴趣的信息的过程。信息推荐任务中的信息往往称为物品(Item)。根据具体应用背景的不同,这些物品可以是新闻、电影、音乐、广告、商品等各种对象。俗称推荐系统。

    In this paper, we consider the problem of learning functions over sets, i.e., functions that are invariant to permutations of input set items. Recent approaches of pooling individual element embeddings can necessitate extremely large embedding sizes for challenging functions. We address this challenge by allowing standard neural networks like LSTMs to succinctly capture the function over the set. However, to ensure invariance with respect to permutations of set elements, we propose a novel architecture called SPAN that simultaneously learns the function as well as adversarial or worst-case permutations for each input set. The learning problem reduces to a min-max optimization problem that is solved via a simple alternating block coordinate descent technique. We conduct extensive experiments on a variety of set-learning tasks and demonstrate that SPAN learns nearly permutation-invariant functions while still ensuring accuracy on test data. On a variety of tasks sampled from the domains of statistics, graph functions and linear algebra, we show that our method can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods such as DeepSets and Janossy Pooling. Finally, we present a case study of how learning set-functions can help extract powerful features for recommendation systems, and show that such a method can be as much as 2% more accurate than carefully hand-tuned features on a real-world recommendation system.

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    Recommender systems play a crucial role in our daily lives. Feed streaming mechanism has been widely used in the recommender system, especially on the mobile Apps. The feed streaming setting provides users the interactive manner of recommendation in never-ending feeds. In such an interactive manner, a good recommender system should pay more attention to user stickiness, which is far beyond classical instant metrics, and typically measured by {\bf long-term user engagement}. Directly optimizing the long-term user engagement is a non-trivial problem, as the learning target is usually not available for conventional supervised learning methods. Though reinforcement learning~(RL) naturally fits the problem of maximizing the long term rewards, applying RL to optimize long-term user engagement is still facing challenges: user behaviors are versatile and difficult to model, which typically consists of both instant feedback~(e.g. clicks, ordering) and delayed feedback~(e.g. dwell time, revisit); in addition, performing effective off-policy learning is still immature, especially when combining bootstrapping and function approximation. To address these issues, in this work, we introduce a reinforcement learning framework --- FeedRec to optimize the long-term user engagement. FeedRec includes two components: 1)~a Q-Network which designed in hierarchical LSTM takes charge of modeling complex user behaviors, and 2)~an S-Network, which simulates the environment, assists the Q-Network and voids the instability of convergence in policy learning. Extensive experiments on synthetic data and a real-world large scale data show that FeedRec effectively optimizes the long-term user engagement and outperforms state-of-the-arts.

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    We propose a J-NCF method for recommender systems. The J-NCF model applies a joint neural network that couples deep feature learning and deep interaction modeling with a rating matrix. Deep feature learning extracts feature representations of users and items with a deep learning architecture based on a user-item rating matrix. Deep interaction modeling captures non-linear user-item interactions with a deep neural network using the feature representations generated by the deep feature learning process as input. J-NCF enables the deep feature learning and deep interaction modeling processes to optimize each other through joint training, which leads to improved recommendation performance. In addition, we design a new loss function for optimization, which takes both implicit and explicit feedback, point-wise and pair-wise loss into account. Experiments on several real-word datasets show significant improvements of J-NCF over state-of-the-art methods, with improvements of up to 8.24% on the MovieLens 100K dataset, 10.81% on the MovieLens 1M dataset, and 10.21% on the Amazon Movies dataset in terms of [email protected] [email protected] improvements are 12.42%, 14.24% and 15.06%, respectively. We also conduct experiments to evaluate the scalability and sensitivity of J-NCF. Our experiments show that the J-NCF model has a competitive recommendation performance with inactive users and different degrees of data sparsity when compared to state-of-the-art baselines.

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    With the ever-growing volume of online information, recommender systems have been an effective strategy to overcome such information overload. The utility of recommender systems cannot be overstated, given its widespread adoption in many web applications, along with its potential impact to ameliorate many problems related to over-choice. In recent years, deep learning has garnered considerable interest in many research fields such as computer vision and natural language processing, owing not only to stellar performance but also the attractive property of learning feature representations from scratch. The influence of deep learning is also pervasive, recently demonstrating its effectiveness when applied to information retrieval and recommender systems research. Evidently, the field of deep learning in recommender system is flourishing. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent research efforts on deep learning based recommender systems. More concretely, we provide and devise a taxonomy of deep learning based recommendation models, along with providing a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art. Finally, we expand on current trends and provide new perspectives pertaining to this new exciting development of the field.

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    Collaborative filtering based recommender systems have been extremely successful in settings where user preference data on items is abundant. However, collaborative filtering algorithms are hindered by their weakness against the item cold-start problem and general lack of interpretability. Ontology-based recommender systems exploit hierarchical organizations of users and items to enhance browsing, recommendation, and profile construction. While ontology-based approaches address the shortcomings of their collaborative filtering counterparts, ontological organizations of items can be difficult to obtain when items mostly belong to the same category and are mostly alike (e.g. television series episodes). In this paper, we present an ontology-based recommender system that integrates the knowledge represented in a large ontology of literary themes to produce fiction content recommendations. The main novelty of this work is an ontology-based method for computing similarities between items and its integration with the classical Item-KNN algorithm. As study case, we evaluated the proposed method against other approaches by performing the classical rating prediction task on a collection of Star Trek television series episodes in an item cold-start scenario. This transverse evaluation provides insights into the utility of different information resources and methods for the initial stages of recommender system development. We observed that our proposed method showed to be a convenient alternative to collaborative filtering approaches for collections of mostly similar items, particularly when other content-based approaches are not applicable or otherwise unavailable. Aside from the new methods, this paper contributes a testbed for future research and an online framework to collaboratively extend the ontology of literary themes to cover other narrative content.

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    We propose an algorithm for low rank matrix completion for matrices with binary entries which obtains explicit binary factors. Our algorithm, which we call TBMC (\emph{Tiling for Binary Matrix Completion}), gives interpretable output in the form of binary factors which represent a decomposition of the matrix into tiles. Our approach is inspired by a popular algorithm from the data mining community called PROXIMUS: it adopts the same recursive partitioning approach while extending to missing data. The algorithm relies upon rank-one approximations of incomplete binary matrices, and we propose a linear programming (LP) approach for solving this subproblem. We also prove a $2$-approximation result for the LP approach which holds for any level of subsampling and for any subsampling pattern. Our numerical experiments show that TBMC outperforms existing methods on recommender systems arising in the context of real datasets.

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    Count data are often used in recommender systems: they are widespread (song play counts, product purchases, clicks on web pages) and can reveal user preference without any explicit rating from the user. Such data are known to be sparse, over-dispersed and bursty, which makes their direct use in recommender systems challenging, often leading to pre-processing steps such as binarization. The aim of this paper is to build recommender systems from these raw data, by means of the recently proposed compound Poisson Factorization (cPF). The paper contributions are three-fold: we present a unified framework for discrete data (dcPF), leading to an adaptive and scalable algorithm; we show that our framework achieves a trade-off between Poisson Factorization (PF) applied to raw and binarized data; we study four specific instances that are relevant to recommendation and exhibit new links with combinatorics. Experiments with three different datasets show that dcPF is able to effectively adjust to over-dispersion, leading to better recommendation scores when compared with PF on either raw or binarized data.

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    Recommender Systems are widely and successfully applied in e-commerce. Could they be used for design? In this paper, we introduce Pitako1, a tool that applies the Recommender System concept to assist humans in creative tasks. More specifically, Pitako provides suggestions by taking games designed by humans as inputs, and recommends mechanics and dynamics as outputs. Pitako is implemented as a new system within the mixed-initiative AI-based Game Design Assistant, Cicero. This paper discusses the motivation behind the implementation of Pitako as well as its technical details and presents usage examples. We believe that Pitako can influence the use of recommender systems to help humans in their daily tasks.

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    The use of computational methods to evaluate aesthetics in photography has gained interest in recent years due to the popularization of convolutional neural networks and the availability of new annotated datasets. Most studies in this area have focused on designing models that do not take into account individual preferences for the prediction of the aesthetic value of pictures. We propose a model based on residual learning that is capable of learning subjective, user specific preferences over aesthetics in photography, while surpassing the state-of-the-art methods and keeping a limited number of user-specific parameters in the model. Our model can also be used for picture enhancement, and it is suitable for content-based or hybrid recommender systems in which the amount of computational resources is limited.

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    We propose a J-NCF method for recommender systems. The J-NCF model applies a joint neural network that couples deep feature learning and deep interaction modeling with a rating matrix. Deep feature learning extracts feature representations of users and items with a deep learning architecture based on a user-item rating matrix. Deep interaction modeling captures non-linear user-item interactions with a deep neural network using the feature representations generated by the deep feature learning process as input. J-NCF enables the deep feature learning and deep interaction modeling processes to optimize each other through joint training, which leads to improved recommendation performance. In addition, we design a new loss function for optimization, which takes both implicit and explicit feedback, point-wise and pair-wise loss into account. Experiments on several real-word datasets show significant improvements of J-NCF over state-of-the-art methods, with improvements of up to 8.24% on the MovieLens 100K dataset, 10.81% on the MovieLens 1M dataset, and 10.21% on the Amazon Movies dataset in terms of [email protected] [email protected] improvements are 12.42%, 14.24% and 15.06%, respectively. We also conduct experiments to evaluate the scalability and sensitivity of J-NCF. Our experiments show that the J-NCF model has a competitive recommendation performance with inactive users and different degrees of data sparsity when compared to state-of-the-art baselines.

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    Over the past 10 years, many recommendation techniques have been based on embedding users and items in latent vector spaces, where the inner product of a (user,item) pair of vectors represents the predicted affinity of the user to the item. A wealth of literature has focused on the various modeling approaches that result in embeddings, and has compared their quality metrics, learning complexity, etc. However, much less attention has been devoted to the issues surrounding productization of an embeddings-based high throughput, low latency recommender system. In particular, how the system might keep up with the changing embeddings as new models are learnt. This paper describes a reference architecture of a high-throughput, large scale recommendation service which leverages a search engine as its runtime core. We describe how the search index and the query builder adapt to changes in the embeddings, which often happen at a different cadence than index builds. We provide solutions for both id-based and feature-based embeddings, as well as for batch indexing and incremental indexing setups. The described system is at the core of a Web content discovery service that serves tens of billions recommendations per day in response to billions of user requests.

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    Items popularity is a strong signal in recommendation algorithms. It strongly affects collaborative filtering approaches and it has been proven to be a very good baseline in terms of results accuracy. Even though we miss an actual personalization, global popularity can be effectively used to recommend items to users. In this paper we introduce the idea of a time-aware personalized popularity in recommender systems by considering both items popularity among neighbors and how it changes over time. An experimental evaluation shows a highly competitive behavior of the proposed approach, compared to state of the art model-based collaborative approaches, in terms of results accuracy.

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    Collaborative filtering based algorithms, including Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), tend towards predicting a perpetuation of past observed behavior. In a recommendation context, this can lead to an overly narrow set of suggestions lacking in serendipity and inadvertently placing the user in what is known as a "filter bubble." In this paper, we grapple with the issue of the filter bubble in the context of a course recommendation system in production at a public university. Most universities in the United States encourage students to explore developing interests while simultaneously advising them to adhere to course taking norms which progress them towards graduation. These competing objectives, and the stakes involved for students, make this context a particularly meaningful one for investigating real-world recommendation strategies. We introduce a novel modification to the skip-gram model applied to nine years of historic course enrollment sequences to learn course vector representations used to diversify recommendations based on similarity to a student's specified favorite course. This model, which we call multifactor2vec, is intended to improve the semantics of the primary token embedding by also learning embeddings of potentially conflated factors of the token (e.g., instructor). Our offline testing found this model improved accuracy and recall on our course similarity and analogy validation sets over a standard skip-gram. Incorporating course catalog description text resulted in further improvements. We compare the performance of these models to the system's existing RNN-based recommendations with a user study of undergraduates (N = 70) rating six characteristics of their course recommendations. Results of the user study show a dramatic lack of novelty in RNN recommendations and depict the characteristic trade-offs that make serendipity difficult to achieve.

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    Interactive recommender systems that enable the interactions between users and the recommender system have attracted increasing research attentions. Previous methods mainly focus on optimizing recommendation accuracy. However, they usually ignore the diversity of the recommendation results, thus usually results in unsatisfying user experiences. In this paper, we propose a novel diversified recommendation model, named Diversified Contextual Combinatorial Bandit (DC$^2$B), for interactive recommendation with users' implicit feedback. Specifically, DC$^2$B employs determinantal point process in the recommendation procedure to promote diversity of the recommendation results. To learn the model parameters, a Thompson sampling-type algorithm based on variational Bayesian inference is proposed. In addition, theoretical regret analysis is also provided to guarantee the performance of DC$^2$B. Extensive experiments on real datasets are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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    A major challenge of recommender systems is to help users locating interesting items. Personalized recommender systems have become very popular as they attempt to predetermine the needs of users and provide them with recommendations to personalize their navigation. However, few studies have addressed the question of what drives the users' attention to specific content within the collection and what influences the selection of interesting items. To this end, we employ the lens of Information Foraging Theory (IFT) to image recommendation to demonstrate how the user could utilize visual bookmarks to locate interesting images. We investigate a personalized content-based image recommendation system to understand what affects user attention by reinforcing visual attention cues based on IFT. We further find that visual bookmarks (cues) lead to a stronger scent of the recommended image collection. Our evaluation is based on the Pinterest image collection.

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