信息推荐,是指根据用户的习惯、偏好或兴趣,从不断到来的大规模信息中识别满足用户兴趣的信息的过程。信息推荐任务中的信息往往称为物品(Item)。根据具体应用背景的不同,这些物品可以是新闻、电影、音乐、广告、商品等各种对象。俗称推荐系统。

    Smile and Learn is an Ed-Tech company that runs a smart library with more that 100 applications, games and interactive stories, aimed at children aged two to 10 and their families. The platform gathers thousands of data points from the interaction with the system to subsequently offer reports and recommendations. Given the complexity of navigating all the content, the library implements a recommender system. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two aspects of such system focused on children: the influence of the order of recommendations on user exploratory behavior, and the impact of the choice of the recommendation algorithm on engagement. The assessment, based on data collected between 15 October 2018 and 1 December 2018, required the analysis of the number of clicks performed on the recommendations depending on their ordering, and an A/B/C testing where two standard recommendation algorithmswere comparedwith a randomrecommendation that served as baseline. The results suggest a direct connection between the order of the recommendation and the interest raised, and the superiority of recommendations based on popularity against other alternatives.

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    We give a classical analogue to Kerenidis and Prakash's quantum recommendation system, previously believed to be one of the strongest candidates for provably exponential speedups in quantum machine learning. Our main result is an algorithm that, given an $m \times n$ matrix in a data structure supporting certain $\ell^2$-norm sampling operations, outputs an $\ell^2$-norm sample from a rank-$k$ approximation of that matrix in time $O(\text{poly}(k)\log(mn))$, only polynomially slower than the quantum algorithm. As a consequence, Kerenidis and Prakash's algorithm does not in fact give an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Further, under strong input assumptions, the classical recommendation system resulting from our algorithm produces recommendations exponentially faster than previous classical systems, which run in time linear in $m$ and $n$. The main insight of this work is the use of simple routines to manipulate $\ell^2$-norm sampling distributions, which play the role of quantum superpositions in the classical setting. This correspondence indicates a potentially fruitful framework for formally comparing quantum machine learning algorithms to classical machine learning algorithms.

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    Industrial recommender systems usually consist of the matching stage and the ranking stage, in order to handle the billion-scale of users and items. The matching stage retrieves candidate items relevant to user interests, while the ranking stage sorts candidate items by user interests. Thus, the most critical ability is to model and represent user interests for either stage. Most of the existing deep learning-based models represent one user as a single vector which is insufficient to capture the varying nature of user's interests. In this paper, we approach this problem from a different view, to represent one user with multiple vectors encoding the different aspects of the user's interests. We propose the Multi-Interest Network with Dynamic routing (MIND) for dealing with user's diverse interests in the matching stage. Specifically, we design a multi-interest extractor layer based on capsule routing mechanism, which is applicable for clustering historical behaviors and extracting diverse interests. Furthermore, we develop a technique named label-aware attention to help learn a user representation with multiple vectors. Through extensive experiments on several public benchmarks and one large-scale industrial dataset from Tmall, we demonstrate that MIND can achieve superior performance than state-of-the-art methods for recommendation. Currently, MIND has been deployed for handling major online traffic at the homepage on Mobile Tmall App.

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    Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is a key kernel for unsupervised dimension reduction used in a wide range of applications, including topic modeling, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Due to the compute-intensive nature of applications that must perform repeated NMF, several parallel implementations have been developed in the past. However, existing parallel NMF algorithms have not addressed data locality optimizations, which are critical for high performance since data movement costs greatly exceed the cost of arithmetic/logic operations on current computer systems. In this paper, we devise a parallel NMF algorithm based on the HALS (Hierarchical Alternating Least Squares) scheme that incorporates algorithmic transformations to enhance data locality. Efficient realizations of the algorithm on multi-core CPUs and GPUs are developed, demonstrating significant performance improvement over existing state-of-the-art parallel NMF algorithms.

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    Online communities such as Facebook and Twitter are enormously popular and have become an essential part of the daily life of many of their users. Through these platforms, users can discover and create information that others will then consume. In that context, recommending relevant information to users becomes critical for viability. However, recommendation in online communities is a challenging problem: 1) users' interests are dynamic, and 2) users are influenced by their friends. Moreover, the influencers may be context-dependent. That is, different friends may be relied upon for different topics. Modeling both signals is therefore essential for recommendations. We propose a recommender system for online communities based on a dynamic-graph-attention neural network. We model dynamic user behaviors with a recurrent neural network, and context-dependent social influence with a graph-attention neural network, which dynamically infers the influencers based on users' current interests. The whole model can be efficiently fit on large-scale data. Experimental results on several real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach over several competitive baselines including state-of-the-art models.

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    Ranking is a core task in E-commerce recommender systems, which aims at providing an ordered list of items to users. Typically, a ranking function is learned from the labeled dataset to optimize the global performance, which produces a ranking score for each individual item. However, it may be sub-optimal because the scoring function applies to each item individually and does not explicitly consider the mutual influence between items, as well as the differences of users' preferences or intents. Therefore, we propose a personalized context-aware re-ranking model for E-commerce recommender systems. The proposed re-ranking model can be easily deployed as a follow-up modular after ranking by directly using the existing feature vectors of ranking. It directly optimizes the whole recommendation list by employing a transformer structure to efficiently encode the information of all items in the list. Specifically, the Transformer applies a self-attention mechanism that directly models the global relationships between any pair of items in the whole list. Besides, we introduce the personalized embedding to model the differences between feature distributions for different users. Experimental results on both offline benchmarks and real-world online E-commerce systems demonstrate the significant improvements of the proposed re-ranking model.

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    In this paper we consider an online recommendation setting, where a platform recommends a sequence of items to its users at every time period. The users respond by selecting one of the items recommended or abandon the platform due to fatigue from seeing less useful items. Assuming a parametric stochastic model of user behavior, which captures positional effects of these items as well as the abandoning behavior of users, the platform's goal is to recommend sequences of items that are competitive to the single best sequence of items in hindsight, without knowing the true user model a priori. Naively applying a stochastic bandit algorithm in this setting leads to an exponential dependence on the number of items. We propose a new Thompson sampling based algorithm with expected regret that is polynomial in the number of items in this combinatorial setting, and performs extremely well in practice.

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    Recommender systems that can learn from cross-session data to dynamically predict the next item a user will choose are crucial for online platforms. However, existing approaches often use out-of-the-box sequence models which are limited by speed and memory consumption, are often infeasible for production environments, and usually do not incorporate cross-session information, which is crucial for effective recommendations. Here we propose Hierarchical Temporal Convolutional Networks (HierTCN), a hierarchical deep learning architecture that makes dynamic recommendations based on users' sequential multi-session interactions with items. HierTCN is designed for web-scale systems with billions of items and hundreds of millions of users. It consists of two levels of models: The high-level model uses Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to aggregate users' evolving long-term interests across different sessions, while the low-level model is implemented with Temporal Convolutional Networks (TCN), utilizing both the long-term interests and the short-term interactions within sessions to predict the next interaction. We conduct extensive experiments on a public XING dataset and a large-scale Pinterest dataset that contains 6 million users with 1.6 billion interactions. We show that HierTCN is 2.5x faster than RNN-based models and uses 90% less data memory compared to TCN-based models. We further develop an effective data caching scheme and a queue-based mini-batch generator, enabling our model to be trained within 24 hours on a single GPU. Our model consistently outperforms state-of-the-art dynamic recommendation methods, with up to 18% improvement in recall and 10% in mean reciprocal rank.

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    Mobile proactive tourist recommender systems can support tourists by recommending the best choice depending on different contexts related to herself and the environment. In this paper, we propose to utilize wearable sensors to gather health information about a tourist and use them for recommending tourist activities. We discuss a range of wearable devices, sensors to infer physiological conditions of the users, and exemplify the feasibility using a popular self-quantification mobile app. Our main contribution then comprises a data model to derive relations between the parameters measured by the wearable sensors, such as heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, and use them to infer the physiological condition of a user. This model can then be used to derive classes of tourist activities that determine which items should be recommended.

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    Data sparsity and data imbalance are practical and challenging issues in cross-domain recommender systems. This paper addresses those problems by leveraging the concepts which derive from representation learning, adversarial learning and transfer learning (particularly, domain adaptation). Although various transfer learning methods have shown promising performance in this context, our proposed novel method RecSys-DAN focuses on alleviating the cross-domain and within-domain data sparsity and data imbalance and learns transferable latent representations for users, items and their interactions. Different from existing approaches, the proposed method transfers the latent representations from a source domain to a target domain in an adversarial way. The mapping functions in the target domain are learned by playing a min-max game with an adversarial loss, aiming to generate domain indistinguishable representations for a discriminator. Four neural architectural instances of ResSys-DAN are proposed and explored. Empirical results on real-world Amazon data show that, even without using labeled data (i.e., ratings) in the target domain, RecSys-DAN achieves competitive performance as compared to the state-of-the-art supervised methods. More importantly, RecSys-DAN is highly flexible to both unimodal and multimodal scenarios, and thus it is more robust to the cold-start recommendation which is difficult for previous methods.

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    Finding new academic Methods for research problems is the key task in a researcher's research career. It is usually very difficult for new researchers to find good Methods for their research problems since they lack of research experiences. In order to help researchers carry out their researches in a more convenient way, we describe a novel recommendation system called AMRec to recommend new academic Methods for research problems in this paper. Our proposed system first extracts academic concepts (Tasks and Methods) and their relations from academic literatures, and then leverages the regularized matrix factorization Method for academic Method recommendation. Preliminary evaluation results verify the effectiveness of our proposed system.

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    Recommender systems that can learn from cross-session data to dynamically predict the next item a user will choose are crucial for online platforms. However, existing approaches often use out-of-the-box sequence models which are limited by speed and memory consumption, are often infeasible for production environments, and usually do not incorporate cross-session information, which is crucial for effective recommendations. Here we propose Hierarchical Temporal Convolutional Networks (HierTCN), a hierarchical deep learning architecture that makes dynamic recommendations based on users' sequential multi-session interactions with items. HierTCN is designed for web-scale systems with billions of items and hundreds of millions of users. It consists of two levels of models: The high-level model uses Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) to aggregate users' evolving long-term interests across different sessions, while the low-level model is implemented with Temporal Convolutional Networks (TCN), utilizing both the long-term interests and the short-term interactions within sessions to predict the next interaction. We conduct extensive experiments on a public XING dataset and a large-scale Pinterest dataset that contains 6 million users with 1.6 billion interactions. We show that HierTCN is 2.5x faster than RNN-based models and uses 90% less data memory compared to TCN-based models. We further develop an effective data caching scheme and a queue-based mini-batch generator, enabling our model to be trained within 24 hours on a single GPU. Our model consistently outperforms state-of-the-art dynamic recommendation methods, with up to 18% improvement in recall and 10% in mean reciprocal rank.

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    Matrix completion has a long-time history of usage as the core technique of recommender systems. In particular, 1-bit matrix completion, which considers the prediction as a ``Recommended'' or ``Not Recommended'' question, has proved its significance and validity in the field. However, while customers and products aggregate into interacted clusters, state-of-the-art model-based 1-bit recommender systems do not take the consideration of grouping bias. To tackle the gap, this paper introduced Group-Specific 1-bit Matrix Completion (GS1MC) by first-time consolidating group-specific effects into 1-bit recommender systems under the low-rank latent variable framework. Additionally, to empower GS1MC even when grouping information is unobtainable, Cluster Developing Matrix Completion (CDMC) was proposed by integrating the sparse subspace clustering technique into GS1MC. Namely, CDMC allows clustering users/items and to leverage their group effects into matrix completion at the same time. Experiments on synthetic and real-world data show that GS1MC outperforms the current 1-bit matrix completion methods. Meanwhile, it is compelling that CDMC can successfully capture items' genre features only based on sparse binary user-item interactive data. Notably, GS1MC provides a new insight to incorporate and evaluate the efficacy of clustering methods while CDMC can be served as a new tool to explore unrevealed social behavior or market phenomenon.

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    Globally distributed groups require collaborative systems to support their work. Besides being able to support the teamwork, these systems also should promote well-being and maximize the human potential that leads to an engaging system and joyful experience. Designing such system is a significant challenge and requires a thorough understanding of group work. We used the field theory as a lens to view the essential aspects of group motivation and then utilized collaboration personas to analyze the elements of group work. We integrated well-being determinants as engagement factors to develop a group-centered framework for digital collaboration in a global setting. Based on the outcomes, we proposed a conceptual framework to design an engaging collaborative system and recommend system values that can be used to evaluate the system further

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    The recommender systems have long been investigated in the literature. Recently, users' implicit feedback like `click' or `browse' are considered to be able to enhance the recommendation performance. Therefore, a number of attempts have been made to resolve this issue. Among them, the variational autoencoders (VAE) approach already achieves a superior performance. However, the distributions of the encoded latent variables overlap a lot which may restrict its recommendation ability. To cope with this challenge, this paper tries to extend the Wasserstein autoencoders (WAE) for collaborative filtering. Particularly, the loss function of the adapted WAE is re-designed by introducing two additional loss terms: (1) the mutual information loss between the distribution of latent variables and the assumed ground truth distribution, and (2) the L1 regularization loss introduced to restrict the encoded latent variables to be sparse. Two different cost functions are designed for measuring the distance between the implicit feedback data and its re-generated version of data. Experiments are valuated on three widely adopted data sets, i.e., ML-20M, Netflix and LASTFM. Both the baseline and the state-of-the-art approaches are chosen for the performance comparison which are Mult-DAE, Mult-VAE, CDAE and Slim. The performance of the proposed approach outperforms the compared methods with respect to evaluation criteria [email protected], [email protected] and [email protected], and this demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach.

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