Abstracting complex 3D shapes with parsimonious part-based representations has been a long standing goal in computer vision. This paper presents a learning-based solution to this problem which goes beyond the traditional 3D cuboid representation by exploiting superquadrics as atomic elements. We demonstrate that superquadrics lead to more expressive 3D scene parses while being easier to learn than 3D cuboid representations. Moreover, we provide an analytical solution to the Chamfer loss which avoids the need for computational expensive reinforcement learning or iterative prediction. Our model learns to parse 3D objects into consistent superquadric representations without supervision. Results on various ShapeNet categories as well as the SURREAL human body dataset demonstrate the flexibility of our model in capturing fine details and complex poses that could not have been modelled using cuboids.
Facial action unit (AU) recognition is a crucial task for facial expressions analysis and has attracted extensive attention in the field of artificial intelligence and computer vision. Existing works have either focused on designing or learning complex regional feature representations, or delved into various types of AU relationship modeling. Albeit with varying degrees of progress, it is still arduous for existing methods to handle complex situations. In this paper, we investigate how to integrate the semantic relationship propagation between AUs in a deep neural network framework to enhance the feature representation of facial regions, and propose an AU semantic relationship embedded representation learning (SRERL) framework. Specifically, by analyzing the symbiosis and mutual exclusion of AUs in various facial expressions, we organize the facial AUs in the form of structured knowledge-graph and integrate a Gated Graph Neural Network (GGNN) in a multi-scale CNN framework to propagate node information through the graph for generating enhanced AU representation. As the learned feature involves both the appearance characteristics and the AU relationship reasoning, the proposed model is more robust and can cope with more challenging cases, e.g., illumination change and partial occlusion. Extensive experiments on the two public benchmarks demonstrate that our method outperforms the previous work and achieves state of the art performance.
Machine-learning-based data-driven applications have become ubiquitous, e.g., health-care analysis and database system optimization. Big training data and large (deep) models are crucial for good performance. Dropout has been widely used as an efficient regularization technique to prevent large models from overfitting. However, many recent works show that dropout does not bring much performance improvement for deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a popular deep learning model for data-driven applications. In this paper, we formulate existing dropout methods for CNNs under the same analysis framework to investigate the failures. We attribute the failure to the conflicts between the dropout and the batch normalization operation after it. Consequently, we propose to change the order of the operations, which results in new building blocks of CNNs.Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets CIFAR, SVHN and ImageNet have been conducted to compare the existing building blocks and our new building blocks with different dropout methods. The results confirm the superiority of our proposed building blocks due to the regularization and implicit model ensemble effect of dropout. In particular, we improve over state-of-the-art CNNs with significantly better performance of 3.17%, 16.15%, 1.44%, 21.46% error rate on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, SVHN and ImageNet respectively.
The body pose of a person wearing a camera is of great interest for applications in augmented reality, healthcare, and robotics, yet much of the person's body is out of view for a typical wearable camera. We propose a learning-based approach to estimate the camera wearer's 3D body pose from egocentric video sequences. Our key insight is to leverage interactions with another person---whose body pose we can directly observe---as a signal inherently linked to the body pose of the first-person subject. We show that since interactions between individuals often induce a well-ordered series of back-and-forth responses, it is possible to learn a temporal model of the interlinked poses even though one party is largely out of view. We demonstrate our idea on a variety of domains with dyadic interaction and show the substantial impact on egocentric body pose estimation, which improves the state of the art. Video results are available at http://vision.cs.utexas.edu/projects/you2me/
Recently, deep learning has become a de facto standard in machine learning with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) demonstrating spectacular success on a wide variety of tasks. However, CNNs are typically very demanding computationally at inference time. One of the ways to alleviate this burden on certain hardware platforms is quantization relying on the use of low-precision arithmetic representation for the weights and the activations. Another popular method is the pruning of the number of filters in each layer. While mainstream deep learning methods train the neural networks weights while keeping the network architecture fixed, the emerging neural architecture search (NAS) techniques make the latter also amenable to training. In this paper, we formulate optimal arithmetic bit length allocation and neural network pruning as a NAS problem, searching for the configurations satisfying a computational complexity budget while maximizing the accuracy. We use a differentiable search method based on the continuous relaxation of the search space proposed by Liu et al. (arXiv:1806.09055). We show, by grid search, that heterogeneous quantized networks suffer from a high variance which renders the benefit of the search questionable. For pruning, improvement over homogeneous cases is possible, but it is still challenging to find those configurations with the proposed method. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/yochaiz/Slimmable and https://github.com/yochaiz/darts-UNIQ .
Understanding the behaviors and intentions of humans are one of the main challenges autonomous ground vehicles still faced with. More specifically, when it comes to complex environments such as urban traffic scenes, inferring the intentions and actions of vulnerable road users such as pedestrians become even harder. In this paper, we address the problem of intent action prediction of pedestrians in urban traffic environments using only image sequences from a monocular RGB camera. We propose a real-time framework that can accurately detect, track and predict the intended actions of pedestrians based on a tracking-by-detection technique in conjunction with a novel spatio-temporal DenseNet model. We trained and evaluated our framework based on real data collected from urban traffic environments. Our framework has shown resilient and competitive results in comparison to other baseline approaches. Overall, we achieved an average precision score of 84.76% with a real-time performance at 20 FPS.