Although classifiers/quantifiers (CQs) expressions appear frequently in everyday communications or written documents, they are described neither in classical bilingual paper dictionaries , nor in machine-readable dictionaries. The paper describes a CQs dictionary, edited from the corpus we have annotated, and its usage in the framework of French-Japanese machine translation (MT). CQs treatment in MT often causes problems of lexical ambiguity, polylexical phrase recognition difficulties in analysis and doubtful output in transfer-generation, in particular for distant languages pairs like French and Japanese. Our basic treatment of CQs is to annotate the corpus by UNL-UWs (Universal Networking Language-Universal words) 1 , and then to produce a bilingual or multilingual dictionary of CQs, based on synonymy through identity of UWs.

The ability to generate natural language sequences from source code snippets has a variety of applications such as code summarization, documentation, and retrieval. Sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models, adopted from neural machine translation (NMT), have achieved state-of-the-art performance on these tasks by treating source code as a sequence of tokens. We present ${\rm {\scriptsize CODE2SEQ}}$: an alternative approach that leverages the syntactic structure of programming languages to better encode source code. Our model represents a code snippet as the set of compositional paths in its abstract syntax tree (AST) and uses attention to select the relevant paths while decoding. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for two tasks, two programming languages, and four datasets of up to $16$M examples. Our model significantly outperforms previous models that were specifically designed for programming languages, as well as state-of-the-art NMT models. An interactive online demo of our model is available at http://code2seq.org. Our code, data and trained models are available at http://github.com/tech-srl/code2seq.

It is intuitive that semantic representations can be useful for machine translation, mainly because they can help in enforcing meaning preservation and handling data sparsity (many sentences correspond to one meaning) of machine translation models. On the other hand, little work has been done on leveraging semantics for neural machine translation (NMT). In this work, we study the usefulness of AMR (short for abstract meaning representation) on NMT. Experiments on a standard English-to-German dataset show that incorporating AMR as additional knowledge can significantly improve a strong attention-based sequence-to-sequence neural translation model.

With the promising progress of deep neural networks, layer aggregation has been used to fuse information across layers in various fields, such as computer vision and machine translation. However, most of the previous methods combine layers in a static fashion in that their aggregation strategy is independent of specific hidden states. Inspired by recent progress on capsule networks, in this paper we propose to use routing-by-agreement strategies to aggregate layers dynamically. Specifically, the algorithm learns the probability of a part (individual layer representations) assigned to a whole (aggregated representations) in an iterative way and combines parts accordingly. We implement our algorithm on top of the state-of-the-art neural machine translation model TRANSFORMER and conduct experiments on the widely-used WMT14 English-German and WMT17 Chinese-English translation datasets. Experimental results across language pairs show that the proposed approach consistently outperforms the strong baseline model and a representative static aggregation model.

Multilinguality is gradually becoming ubiquitous in the sense that more and more researchers have successfully shown that using additional languages help improve the results in many Natural Language Processing tasks. Multilingual Multiway Corpora (MMC) contain the same sentence in multiple languages. Such corpora have been primarily used for Multi-Source and Pivot Language Machine Translation but are also useful for developing multilingual sequence taggers by transfer learning. While these corpora are available, they are not organized for multilingual experiments and researchers need to write boilerplate code every time they want to use said corpora. Moreover, because there is no official MMC collection it becomes difficult to compare against existing approaches. As such we present our work on creating a unified and systematically organized repository of MMC spanning a large number of languages. We also provide training, development and test splits for corpora where official splits are unavailable. We hope that this will help speed up the pace of multilingual NLP research and ensure that NLP researchers obtain results that are more trustable since they can be compared easily. We indicate corpora sources, extraction procedures if any and relevant statistics. We also make our collection public for research purposes.

End-to-end Speech Translation (ST) models have many potential advantages when compared to the cascade of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and text Machine Translation (MT) models, including lowered inference latency and the avoidance of error compounding. However, the quality of end-to-end ST is often limited by a paucity of training data, since it is difficult to collect large parallel corpora of speech and translated transcript pairs. Previous studies have proposed the use of pre-trained components and multi-task learning in order to benefit from weakly supervised training data, such as speech-to-transcript or text-to-foreign-text pairs. In this paper, we demonstrate that using pre-trained MT or text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis models to convert weakly supervised data into speech-to-translation pairs for ST training can be more effective than multi-task learning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a high quality end-to-end ST model can be trained using only weakly supervised datasets, and that synthetic data sourced from unlabeled monolingual text or speech can be used to improve performance. Finally, we discuss methods for avoiding overfitting to synthetic speech with a quantitative ablation study.

The Philippines is an archipelago composed of 7, 641 different islands with more than 150 different languages. This linguistic differences and diversity, though may be seen as a beautiful feature, have contributed to the difficulty in the promotion of educational and cultural development of different domains in the country. An effective machine translation system solely dedicated to cater Philippine languages will surely help bridge this gap. In this research work, a never before applied approach for language translation to a Philippine language was used for a Cebuano to Tagalog translator. A Recurrent Neural Network was used to implement the translator using OpenNMT sequence modeling tool in TensorFlow. The performance of the translation was evaluated using the BLEU Score metric. For the Cebuano to Tagalog translation, BLEU produced a score of 20.01. A subword unit translation for verbs and copyable approach was performed where commonly seen mistranslated words from the source to the target were corrected. The BLEU score increased to 22.87. Though slightly higher, this score still indicates that the translation is somehow understandable but is not yet considered as a good translation.

The acceleration in telecommunication needs leads to many groups of research, especially in communication facilitating and Machine Translation fields. While people contact with others having different languages and cultures, they need to have instant translations. However, the available instant translators are still providing somewhat bad Arabic-English Translations, for instance when translating books or articles, the meaning is not totally accurate. Therefore, using the semantic web techniques to deal with the homographs and homonyms semantically, the aim of this research is to extend a model for the ontology-based Arabic-English Machine Translation, named NAN, which simulate the human way in translation. The experimental results show that NAN translation is approximately more similar to the Human Translation than the other instant translators. The resulted translation will help getting the translated texts in the target language somewhat correctly and semantically more similar to human translations for the Non-Arabic Natives and the Non-English natives.

The ability to generate natural language sequences from source code snippets has a variety of applications such as code summarization, documentation, and retrieval. Sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models, adopted from neural machine translation (NMT), have achieved state-of-the-art performance on these tasks by treating source code as a sequence of tokens. We present ${\rm {\scriptsize CODE2SEQ}}$: an alternative approach that leverages the syntactic structure of programming languages to better encode source code. Our model represents a code snippet as the set of compositional paths in its abstract syntax tree (AST) and uses attention to select the relevant paths while decoding. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for two tasks, two programming languages, and four datasets of up to $16$M examples. Our model significantly outperforms previous models that were specifically designed for programming languages, as well as state-of-the-art NMT models. An interactive online demo of our model is available at http://code2seq.org. Our code, data and trained models are available at http://github.com/tech-srl/code2seq.

Source code summarization -- creating natural language descriptions of source code behavior -- is a rapidly-growing research topic with applications to automatic documentation generation, program comprehension, and software maintenance. Traditional techniques relied on heuristics and templates built manually by human experts. Recently, data-driven approaches based on neural machine translation have largely overtaken template-based systems. But nearly all of these techniques rely almost entirely on programs having good internal documentation; without clear identifier names, the models fail to create good summaries. In this paper, we present a neural model that combines words from code with code structure from an AST. Unlike previous approaches, our model processes each data source as a separate input, which allows the model to learn code structure independent of the text in code. This process helps our approach provide coherent summaries in many cases even when zero internal documentation is provided. We evaluate our technique with a dataset we created from 2.1m Java methods. We find improvement over two baseline techniques from SE literature and one from NLP literature.

Existing attention mechanisms are trained to attend to individual items in a collection (the memory) with a predefined, fixed granularity, e.g., a word token or an image grid. We propose area attention: a way to attend to areas in the memory, where each area contains a group of items that are structurally adjacent, e.g., spatially for a 2D memory such as images, or temporally for a 1D memory such as natural language sentences. Importantly, the shape and the size of an area are dynamically determined via learning, which enables a model to attend to information with varying granularity. Area attention can easily work with existing model architectures such as multi-head attention for simultaneously attending to multiple areas in the memory. We evaluate area attention on two tasks: neural machine translation (both character and token-level) and image captioning, and improve upon strong (state-of-the-art) baselines in all the cases. These improvements are obtainable with a basic form of area attention that is parameter free.

We consider the problem of making machine translation more robust to character-level variation at the source side, such as typos. Existing methods achieve greater coverage by applying subword models such as byte-pair encoding (BPE) and character-level encoders, but these methods are highly sensitive to spelling mistakes. We show how training on a mild amount of random synthetic noise can dramatically improve robustness to these variations, without diminishing performance on clean text. We focus on translation performance on natural noise, as captured by frequent corrections in Wikipedia edit logs, and show that robustness to such noise can be achieved using a balanced diet of simple synthetic noises at training time, without access to the natural noise data or distribution.

The vast majority of language pairs in the world are low-resource because they have little, if any, parallel data available. Unfortunately, machine translation (MT) systems do not currently work well in this setting. Besides the technical challenges of learning with limited supervision, there is also another challenge: it is very difficult to evaluate methods trained on low resource language pairs because there are very few freely and publicly available benchmarks. In this work, we take sentences from Wikipedia pages and introduce new evaluation datasets in two very low resource language pairs, Nepali-English and Sinhala-English. These are languages with very different morphology and syntax, for which little out-of-domain parallel data is available and for which relatively large amounts of monolingual data are freely available. We describe our process to collect and cross-check the quality of translations, and we report baseline performance using several learning settings: fully supervised, weakly supervised, semi-supervised, and fully unsupervised. Our experiments demonstrate that current state-of-the-art methods perform rather poorly on this benchmark, posing a challenge to the research community working on low resource MT. Data and code to reproduce our experiments are available at https://github.com/facebookresearch/flores.

While machine translation has traditionally relied on large amounts of parallel corpora, a recent research line has managed to train both Neural Machine Translation (NMT) and Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) systems using monolingual corpora only. In this paper, we identify and address several deficiencies of existing unsupervised SMT approaches by exploiting subword information, developing a theoretically well founded unsupervised tuning method, and incorporating a joint refinement procedure. Moreover, we use our improved SMT system to initialize a dual NMT model, which is further fine-tuned through on-the-fly back-translation. Together, we obtain large improvements over the previous state-of-the-art in unsupervised machine translation. For instance, we get 22.5 BLEU points in English-to-German WMT 2014, 5.5 points more than the previous best unsupervised system, and 0.5 points more than the (supervised) shared task winner back in 2014.

In this paper, we present a generative retrieval method for sponsored search engine, which uses neural machine translation (NMT) to generate keywords directly from query. This method is completely end-to-end, which skips query rewriting and relevance judging phases in traditional retrieval systems. Different from standard machine translation, the target space in the retrieval setting is a constrained closed set, where only committed keywords should be generated. We present a Trie-based pruning technique in beam search to address this problem. The biggest challenge in deploying this method into a real industrial environment is the latency impact of running the decoder. Self-normalized training coupled with Trie-based dynamic pruning dramatically reduces the inference time, yielding a speedup of more than 20 times. We also devise an mixed online-offline serving architecture to reduce the latency and CPU consumption. To encourage the NMT to generate new keywords uncovered by the existing system, training data is carefully selected. This model has been successfully applied in Baidu's commercial search engine as a supplementary retrieval branch, which has brought a remarkable revenue improvement of more than 10 percents.

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