We address two challenges in topic models: (1) Context information around words helps in determining their actual meaning, e.g., "networks" used in the contexts "artificial neural networks" vs. "biological neuron networks". Generative topic models infer topic-word distributions, taking no or only little context into account. Here, we extend a neural autoregressive topic model to exploit the full context information around words in a document in a language modeling fashion. The proposed model is named as iDocNADE. (2) Due to the small number of word occurrences (i.e., lack of context) in short text and data sparsity in a corpus of few documents, the application of topic models is challenging on such texts. Therefore, we propose a simple and efficient way of incorporating external knowledge into neural autoregressive topic models: we use embeddings as a distributional prior. The proposed variants are named as DocNADEe and iDocNADEe. We present novel neural autoregressive topic model variants that consistently outperform state-of-the-art generative topic models in terms of generalization, interpretability (topic coherence) and applicability (retrieval and classification) over 7 long-text and 8 short-text datasets from diverse domains.
In this paper, we derive the asymptotic behavior of the Bayesian generalization error in the topic model. By theoretical analysis of the maximum pole of the zeta function (real log canonical threshold) of the topic model, we obtain an upper bound of the Bayesian generalization error and the free energy in the topic model and the stochastic matrix factorization (SMF; it can be regarded as a restriction of the non-negative matrix factorization). The results show that the generalization error in the topic model and SMF becomes smaller than regular statistical models if Bayesian inference is attained.
This paper proposes Dirichlet Variational Autoencoder (DirVAE) using a Dirichlet prior for a continuous latent variable that exhibits the characteristic of the categorical probabilities. To infer the parameters of DirVAE, we utilize the stochastic gradient method by approximating the Gamma distribution, which is a component of the Dirichlet distribution, with the inverse Gamma CDF approximation. Additionally, we reshape the component collapsing issue by investigating two problem sources, which are decoder weight collapsing and latent value collapsing, and we show that DirVAE has no component collapsing; while Gaussian VAE exhibits the decoder weight collapsing and Stick-Breaking VAE shows the latent value collapsing. The experimental results show that 1) DirVAE models the latent representation result with the best log-likelihood compared to the baselines; and 2) DirVAE produces more interpretable latent values with no collapsing issues which the baseline models suffer from. Also, we show that the learned latent representation from the DirVAE achieves the best classification accuracy in the semi-supervised and the supervised classification tasks on MNIST, OMNIGLOT, and SVHN compared to the baseline VAEs. Finally, we demonstrated that the DirVAE augmented topic models show better performances in most cases.
We present Variational Aspect-based Latent Topic Allocation (VALTA), a family of autoencoding topic models that learn aspect-based representations of reviews. VALTA defines a user-item encoder that maps bag-of-words vectors for combined reviews associated with each paired user and item onto structured embeddings, which in turn define per-aspect topic weights. We model individual reviews in a structured manner by inferring an aspect assignment for each sentence in a given review, where the per-aspect topic weights obtained by the user-item encoder serve to define a mixture over topics, conditioned on the aspect. The result is an autoencoding neural topic model for reviews, which can be trained in a fully unsupervised manner to learn topics that are structured into aspects. Experimental evaluation on large number of datasets demonstrates that aspects are interpretable, yield higher coherence scores than non-structured autoencoding topic model variants, and can be utilized to perform aspect-based comparison and genre discovery.
Hundreds of thousands of spectators use Twitch.tv to watch The International, a Dota 2 eSports tournament, and communicate in massive chats. In this paper, we analyse these chats and disentangle contextual meanings of emojis and short messages. We apply structural topic modelling and cross-correlation analysis to investigate topical and temporal patterns of chat messages and their relation to in-game events. We show that in-game events drive the communication in the massive chat and define its emergent topical structure to a various extent, connected with the number of chat participants. Based on the findings we propose ways of using chat data to support viewers and chat participants experience.
Models for sequential data such as the recurrent neural network (RNN) often implicitly model a sequence as having a fixed time interval between observations and do not account for group-level effects when multiple sequences are observed. We propose a model for grouped sequential data based on the RNN that accounts for varying time intervals between observations in a sequence by learning a group-level base parameter to which each sequence can revert. Our approach is motivated by the mixed membership framework, and we show how it can be used for dynamic topic modeling in which the distribution on topics (not the topics themselves) are evolving in time. We demonstrate our approach on a dataset of 3.4 million online grocery shopping orders made by 206K customers.
Recommendation systems have an important place to help online users in the internet society. Recommendation Systems in computer science are of very practical use these days in various aspects of the Internet portals, such as social networks, and library websites. There are several approaches to implement recommendation systems, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is one the popular techniques in Topic Modeling. Recently, researchers have proposed many approaches based on Recommendation Systems and LDA. According to importance of the subject, in this paper we discover the trends of the topics and find relationship between LDA topics and Scholar-Context-documents. In fact, We apply probabilistic topic modeling based on Gibbs sampling algorithms for a semantic mining from six conference publications in computer science from DBLP dataset. According to our experimental results, our semantic framework can be effective to help organizations to better organize these conferences and cover future research topics.
We present Variational Aspect-Based Latent Dirichlet Allocation (VALDA), a family of autoencoding topic models that learn aspect-based representations of reviews. VALDA defines a user-item encoder that maps bag-of-words vectors for combined reviews associated with each paired user and item onto structured embeddings, which in turn define per-aspect topic weights. We model individual reviews in a structured manner by inferring an aspect assignment for each sentence in a given review, where the per-aspect topic weights obtained by the user-item encoder serve to define a mixture over topics, conditioned on the aspect. The result is an autoencoding neural topic model for reviews, which can be trained in a fully unsupervised manner to learn topics that are structured into aspects. Experimental evaluation on large number of datasets demonstrates that aspects are interpretable, yield higher coherence scores than non-structured autoencoding topic model variants, and can be utilized to perform aspect-based comparison and genre discovery.
Topic modeling is one of the most powerful techniques in text mining for data mining, latent data discovery, and finding relationships among data, text documents. Researchers have published many articles in the field of topic modeling and applied in various fields such as software engineering, political science, medical and linguistic science, etc. There are various methods for topic modeling, which Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is one of the most popular methods in this field. Researchers have proposed various models based on the LDA in topic modeling. According to previous work, this paper can be very useful and valuable for introducing LDA approaches in topic modeling. In this paper, we investigated scholarly articles highly (between 2003 to 2016) related to Topic Modeling based on LDA to discover the research development, current trends and intellectual structure of topic modeling. Also, we summarize challenges and introduce famous tools and datasets in topic modeling based on LDA.
The first step of many research projects is to define and rank a short list of candidates for study. In the modern rapidity of scientific progress, some turn to automated hypothesis generation (HG) systems to aid this process. These systems can identify implicit or overlooked connections within a large scientific corpus, and while their importance grows alongside the pace of science, they lack thorough validation. Without any standard numerical evaluation method, many validate general-purpose HG systems by rediscovering a handful of historical findings, and some wishing to be more thorough may run laboratory experiments based on automatic suggestions. These methods are expensive, time consuming, and cannot scale. Thus, we present a numerical evaluation framework for the purpose of validating HG systems that leverages thousands of validation hypotheses. This method evaluates a HG system by its ability to rank hypotheses by plausibility; a process reminiscent of human candidate selection. Because HG systems do not produce a ranking criteria, specifically those that produce topic models, we additionally present novel metrics to quantify the plausibility of hypotheses given topic model system output. Finally, we demonstrate that our proposed validation method aligns with real-world research goals by deploying our method within Moliere, our recent topic-driven HG system, in order to automatically generate a set of candidate genes related to HIV-associated neurodegenerative disease (HAND). By performing laboratory experiments based on this candidate set, we discover a new connection between HAND and Dead Box RNA Helicase 3 (DDX3). Reproducibility: code, validation data, and results can be found at sybrandt.com/2018/validation.
We develop a privatised stochastic variational inference method for Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The iterative nature of stochastic variational inference presents challenges: multiple iterations are required to obtain accurate posterior distributions, yet each iteration increases the amount of noise that must be added to achieve a reasonable degree of privacy. We propose a practical algorithm that overcomes this challenge by combining: (1) an improved composition method for differential privacy, called the moments accountant, which provides a tight bound on the privacy cost of multiple variational inference iterations and thus significantly decreases the amount of additive noise; and (2) privacy amplification resulting from subsampling of large-scale data. Focusing on conjugate exponential family models, in our private variational inference, all the posterior distributions will be privatised by simply perturbing expected sufficient statistics. Using Wikipedia data, we illustrate the effectiveness of our algorithm for large-scale data.
The opioid epidemic in the United States claims over 40,000 lives per year, and it is estimated that well over two million Americans have an opioid use disorder. Over-prescription and misuse of prescription opioids play an important role in the epidemic. Individuals who are prescribed opioids, and who are diagnosed with opioid use disorder, have diverse underlying health states. Policy interventions targeting prescription opioid use, opioid use disorder, and overdose often fail to account for this variation. To identify latent health states, or phenotypes, pertinent to opioid use and opioid use disorders, we use probabilistic topic modeling with medical diagnosis histories from a statewide population of individuals who were prescribed opioids. We demonstrate that our learned phenotypes are predictive of future opioid use-related outcomes. In addition, we show how the learned phenotypes can provide important context for variability in opioid prescriptions. Understanding the heterogeneity in individual health states and in prescription opioid use can help identify policy interventions to address this public health crisis.
User representations are routinely used in recommendation systems by platform developers, targeted advertisements by marketers, and by public policy researchers to gauge public opinion across demographic groups. Computer scientists consider the problem of inferring user representations more abstractly; how does one extract a stable user representation - effective for many downstream tasks - from a medium as noisy and complicated as social media? The quality of a user representation is ultimately task-dependent (e.g. does it improve classifier performance, make more accurate recommendations in a recommendation system) but there are proxies that are less sensitive to the specific task. Is the representation predictive of latent properties such as a person's demographic features, socioeconomic class, or mental health state? Is it predictive of the user's future behavior? In this thesis, we begin by showing how user representations can be learned from multiple types of user behavior on social media. We apply several extensions of generalized canonical correlation analysis to learn these representations and evaluate them at three tasks: predicting future hashtag mentions, friending behavior, and demographic features. We then show how user features can be employed as distant supervision to improve topic model fit. Finally, we show how user features can be integrated into and improve existing classifiers in the multitask learning framework. We treat user representations - ground truth gender and mental health features - as auxiliary tasks to improve mental health state prediction. We also use distributed user representations learned in the first chapter to improve tweet-level stance classifiers, showing that distant user information can inform classification tasks at the granularity of a single message.
In this paper, we propose and develop the novel idea of treating musical sheets as literary documents in the traditional text analytics parlance, to fully benefit from the vast amount of research already existing in statistical text mining and topic modelling. We specifically introduce the idea of representing any given piece of music as a collection of "musical words" that we codenamed "muselets", which are essentially musical words of various lengths. Given the novelty and therefore the extremely difficulty of properly forming a complete version of a dictionary of muselets, the present paper focuses on a simpler albeit naive version of the ultimate dictionary, which we refer to as a Naive Dictionary because of the fact that all the words are of the same length. We specifically herein construct a naive dictionary featuring a corpus made up of African American, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic music, on which we perform both topic modelling and pattern recognition. Although some of the results based on the Naive Dictionary are reasonably good, we anticipate phenomenal predictive performances once we get around to actually building a full scale complete version of our intended dictionary of muselets.
We address two challenges of probabilistic topic modelling in order to better estimate the probability of a word in a given context, i.e., P(word|context): (1) No Language Structure in Context: Probabilistic topic models ignore word order by summarizing a given context as a "bag-of-word" and consequently the semantics of words in the context is lost. The LSTM-LM learns a vector-space representation of each word by accounting for word order in local collocation patterns and models complex characteristics of language (e.g., syntax and semantics), while the TM simultaneously learns a latent representation from the entire document and discovers the underlying thematic structure. We unite two complementary paradigms of learning the meaning of word occurrences by combining a TM (e.g., DocNADE) and a LM in a unified probabilistic framework, named as ctx-DocNADE. (2) Limited Context and/or Smaller training corpus of documents: In settings with a small number of word occurrences (i.e., lack of context) in short text or data sparsity in a corpus of few documents, the application of TMs is challenging. We address this challenge by incorporating external knowledge into neural autoregressive topic models via a language modelling approach: we use word embeddings as input of a LSTM-LM with the aim to improve the word-topic mapping on a smaller and/or short-text corpus. The proposed DocNADE extension is named as ctx-DocNADEe. We present novel neural autoregressive topic model variants coupled with neural LMs and embeddings priors that consistently outperform state-of-the-art generative TMs in terms of generalization (perplexity), interpretability (topic coherence) and applicability (retrieval and classification) over 6 long-text and 8 short-text datasets from diverse domains.