As the number of installed meters in buildings increases, there is a growing number of data time-series that could be used to develop data-driven models to support and optimize building operation. However, building data sets are often characterized by errors and missing values, which are considered, by the recent research, among the main limiting factors on the performance of the proposed models. Motivated by the need to address the problem of missing data in building operation, this work presents a data-driven approach to fill these gaps. In this study, three different autoencoder neural networks are trained to reconstruct missing short-term indoor environment data time-series in a data set collected in an office building in Aachen, Germany. This consisted of a four year-long monitoring campaign in and between the years 2014 and 2017, of 84 different rooms. The models are applicable for different time-series obtained from room automation, such as indoor air temperature, relative humidity and $CO_{2}$ data streams. The results prove that the proposed methods outperform classic numerical approaches and they result in reconstructing the corresponding variables with average RMSEs of 0.42 {\deg}C, 1.30 % and 78.41 ppm, respectively.

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自动编码器是一种人工神经网络,用于以无监督的方式学习有效的数据编码。自动编码器的目的是通过训练网络忽略信号“噪声”来学习一组数据的表示(编码),通常用于降维。与简化方面一起,学习了重构方面,在此,自动编码器尝试从简化编码中生成尽可能接近其原始输入的表示形式,从而得到其名称。基本模型存在几种变体,其目的是迫使学习的输入表示形式具有有用的属性。自动编码器可有效地解决许多应用问题,从面部识别到获取单词的语义。

Reconstructing an indoor scene and generating a layout/floor plan in 3D or 2D is a widely known problem. Quite a few algorithms have been proposed in the literature recently. However, most existing methods either use RGB-D images, thus requiring a depth camera, or depending on panoramic photos, assuming that there is little to no occlusion in the rooms. In this work, we proposed GRIHA (Generating Room Interior of a House using ARCore), a framework for generating a layout using an RGB image captured using a simple mobile phone camera. We take advantage of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) to assess the 3D transformations required for layout generation. SLAM technology is built-in in recent mobile libraries such as ARCore by Google. Hence, the proposed method is fast and efficient. It gives the user freedom to generate layout by merely taking a few conventional photos, rather than relying on specialized depth hardware or occlusion-free panoramic images. We have compared GRIHA with other existing methods and obtained superior results. Also, the system is tested on multiple hardware platforms to test the dependency and efficiency.

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We propose a system to capture nearly-synchronous frame streams from multiple and moving handheld mobiles that is suitable for dynamic object 3D reconstruction. Each mobile executes Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping on-board to estimate its pose, and uses a wireless communication channel to send or receive synchronisation triggers. Our system can harvest frames and mobile poses in real time using a decentralised triggering strategy and a data-relay architecture that can be deployed either at the Edge or in the Cloud. We show the effectiveness of our system by employing it for 3D skeleton and volumetric reconstructions. Our triggering strategy achieves equal performance to that of an NTP-based synchronisation approach, but offers higher flexibility, as it can be adjusted online based on application needs. We created a challenging new dataset, namely 4DM, that involves six handheld augmented reality mobiles recording an actor performing sports actions outdoors. We validate our system on 4DM, analyse its strengths and limitations, and compare its modules with alternative ones.

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Medical data sets are usually corrupted by noise and missing data. These missing patterns are commonly assumed to be completely random, but in medical scenarios, the reality is that these patterns occur in bursts due to sensors that are off for some time or data collected in a misaligned uneven fashion, among other causes. This paper proposes to model medical data records with heterogeneous data types and bursty missing data using sequential variational autoencoders (VAEs). In particular, we propose a new methodology, the Shi-VAE, which extends the capabilities of VAEs to sequential streams of data with missing observations. We compare our model against state-of-the-art solutions in an intensive care unit database (ICU) and a dataset of passive human monitoring. Furthermore, we find that standard error metrics such as RMSE are not conclusive enough to assess temporal models and include in our analysis the cross-correlation between the ground truth and the imputed signal. We show that Shi-VAE achieves the best performance in terms of using both metrics, with lower computational complexity than the GP-VAE model, which is the state-of-the-art method for medical records.

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Historical linguists have identified regularities in the process of historic sound change. The comparative method utilizes those regularities to reconstruct proto-words based on observed forms in daughter languages. Can this process be efficiently automated? We address the task of proto-word reconstruction, in which the model is exposed to cognates in contemporary daughter languages, and has to predict the proto word in the ancestor language. We provide a novel dataset for this task, encompassing over 8,000 comparative entries, and show that neural sequence models outperform conventional methods applied to this task so far. Error analysis reveals variability in the ability of neural model to capture different phonological changes, correlating with the complexity of the changes. Analysis of learned embeddings reveals the models learn phonologically meaningful generalizations, corresponding to well-attested phonological shifts documented by historical linguistics.

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3D Morphable Model (3DMM) based methods have achieved great success in recovering 3D face shapes from single-view images. However, the facial textures recovered by such methods lack the fidelity as exhibited in the input images. Recent work demonstrates high-quality facial texture recovering with generative networks trained from a large-scale database of high-resolution UV maps of face textures, which is hard to prepare and not publicly available. In this paper, we introduce a method to reconstruct 3D facial shapes with high-fidelity textures from single-view images in-the-wild, without the need to capture a large-scale face texture database. The main idea is to refine the initial texture generated by a 3DMM based method with facial details from the input image. To this end, we propose to use graph convolutional networks to reconstruct the detailed colors for the mesh vertices instead of reconstructing the UV map. Experiments show that our method can generate high-quality results and outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

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It is not until recently that graph neural networks (GNNs) are adopted to perform graph representation learning, among which, those based on the aggregation of features within the neighborhood of a node achieved great success. However, despite such achievements, GNNs illustrate defects in identifying some common structural patterns which, unfortunately, play significant roles in various network phenomena. In this paper, we propose GraLSP, a GNN framework which explicitly incorporates local structural patterns into the neighborhood aggregation through random anonymous walks. Specifically, we capture local graph structures via random anonymous walks, powerful and flexible tools that represent structural patterns. The walks are then fed into the feature aggregation, where we design various mechanisms to address the impact of structural features, including adaptive receptive radius, attention and amplification. In addition, we design objectives that capture similarities between structures and are optimized jointly with node proximity objectives. With the adequate leverage of structural patterns, our model is able to outperform competitive counterparts in various prediction tasks in multiple datasets.

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We consider open domain event extraction, the task of extracting unconstraint types of events from news clusters. A novel latent variable neural model is constructed, which is scalable to very large corpus. A dataset is collected and manually annotated, with task-specific evaluation metrics being designed. Results show that the proposed unsupervised model gives better performance compared to the state-of-the-art method for event schema induction.

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With the advent of deep neural networks, learning-based approaches for 3D reconstruction have gained popularity. However, unlike for images, in 3D there is no canonical representation which is both computationally and memory efficient yet allows for representing high-resolution geometry of arbitrary topology. Many of the state-of-the-art learning-based 3D reconstruction approaches can hence only represent very coarse 3D geometry or are limited to a restricted domain. In this paper, we propose occupancy networks, a new representation for learning-based 3D reconstruction methods. Occupancy networks implicitly represent the 3D surface as the continuous decision boundary of a deep neural network classifier. In contrast to existing approaches, our representation encodes a description of the 3D output at infinite resolution without excessive memory footprint. We validate that our representation can efficiently encode 3D structure and can be inferred from various kinds of input. Our experiments demonstrate competitive results, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the challenging tasks of 3D reconstruction from single images, noisy point clouds and coarse discrete voxel grids. We believe that occupancy networks will become a useful tool in a wide variety of learning-based 3D tasks.

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Partial person re-identification (re-id) is a challenging problem, where only several partial observations (images) of people are available for matching. However, few studies have provided flexible solutions to identifying a person in an image containing arbitrary part of the body. In this paper, we propose a fast and accurate matching method to address this problem. The proposed method leverages Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) to generate fix-sized spatial feature maps such that pixel-level features are consistent. To match a pair of person images of different sizes, a novel method called Deep Spatial feature Reconstruction (DSR) is further developed to avoid explicit alignment. Specifically, DSR exploits the reconstructing error from popular dictionary learning models to calculate the similarity between different spatial feature maps. In that way, we expect that the proposed FCN can decrease the similarity of coupled images from different persons and increase that from the same person. Experimental results on two partial person datasets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with several state-of-the-art partial person re-id approaches. Additionally, DSR achieves competitive results on a benchmark person dataset Market1501 with 83.58\% Rank-1 accuracy.

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Purpose: MR image reconstruction exploits regularization to compensate for missing k-space data. In this work, we propose to learn the probability distribution of MR image patches with neural networks and use this distribution as prior information constraining images during reconstruction, effectively employing it as regularization. Methods: We use variational autoencoders (VAE) to learn the distribution of MR image patches, which models the high-dimensional distribution by a latent parameter model of lower dimensions in a non-linear fashion. The proposed algorithm uses the learned prior in a Maximum-A-Posteriori estimation formulation. We evaluate the proposed reconstruction method with T1 weighted images and also apply our method on images with white matter lesions. Results: Visual evaluation of the samples showed that the VAE algorithm can approximate the distribution of MR patches well. The proposed reconstruction algorithm using the VAE prior produced high quality reconstructions. The algorithm achieved normalized RMSE, CNR and CN values of 2.77\%, 0.43, 0.11; 4.29\%, 0.43, 0.11, 6.36\%, 0.47, 0.11 and 10.00\%, 0.42, 0.10 for undersampling ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, where it outperformed most of the alternative methods. In the experiments on images with white matter lesions, the method faithfully reconstructed the lesions. Conclusion: We introduced a novel method for MR reconstruction, which takes a new perspective on regularization by using priors learned by neural networks. Results suggest the method compares favorably against the other evaluated methods and can reconstruct lesions as well. Keywords: Reconstruction, MRI, prior probability, MAP estimation, machine learning, variational inference, deep learning

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