知识图谱(Knowledge Graph),在图书情报界称为知识域可视化或知识领域映射地图,是显示知识发展进程与结构关系的一系列各种不同的图形,用可视化技术描述知识资源及其载体,挖掘、分析、构建、绘制和显示知识及它们之间的相互联系。 知识图谱是通过将应用数学、图形学、信息可视化技术、信息科学等学科的理论与方法与计量学引文分析、共现分析等方法结合,并利用可视化的图谱形象地展示学科的核心结构、发展历史、前沿领域以及整体知识架构达到多学科融合目的的现代理论。它能为学科研究提供切实的、有价值的参考。

We propose a novel framework that detects conflicts in IoT-based smart homes. Conflicts may arise during interactions between the resident and IoT services in smart homes. We propose a generic knowledge graph to represent the relations between IoT services and environment entities. We also profile a generic knowledge graph to a specific smart home setting based on the context information. We propose a conflict taxonomy to capture different types of conflicts in a single resident smart home setting. A conflict detection algorithm is proposed to identify potential conflicts using the profiled knowledge graph. We conduct a set of experiments on real datasets and synthesized datasets to validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

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OpenStreetMap (OSM) is one of the richest openly available sources of volunteered geographic information. Although OSM includes various geographical entities, their descriptions are highly heterogeneous, incomplete, and do not follow any well-defined ontology. Knowledge graphs can potentially provide valuable semantic information to enrich OSM entities. However, interlinking OSM entities with knowledge graphs is inherently difficult due to the large, heterogeneous, ambiguous, and flat OSM schema and the annotation sparsity. This paper tackles the alignment of OSM tags with the corresponding knowledge graph classes holistically by jointly considering the schema and instance layers. We propose a novel neural architecture that capitalizes upon a shared latent space for tag-to-class alignment created using linked entities in OSM and knowledge graphs. Our experiments performed to align OSM datasets for several countries with two of the most prominent openly available knowledge graphs, namely, Wikidata and DBpedia, demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art schema alignment baselines by up to 53 percentage points in terms of F1-score. The resulting alignment facilitates new semantic annotations for over 10 million OSM entities worldwide, which is more than a 400% increase compared to the existing semantic annotations in OSM.

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Recent years have witnessed the prosperity of legal artificial intelligence with the development of technologies. In this paper, we propose a novel legal application of legal provision prediction (LPP), which aims to predict the related legal provisions of affairs. We formulate this task as a challenging knowledge graph completion problem, which requires not only text understanding but also graph reasoning. To this end, we propose a novel text-guided graph reasoning approach. We collect amounts of real-world legal provision data from the Guangdong government service website and construct a legal dataset called LegalLPP. Extensive experimental results on the dataset show that our approach achieves better performance compared with baselines. The code and dataset are available in \url{https://github.com/zjunlp/LegalPP} for reproducibility.

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Visualization recommendation or automatic visualization generation can significantly lower the barriers for general users to rapidly create effective data visualizations, especially for those users without a background in data visualizations. However, existing rule-based approaches require tedious manual specifications of visualization rules by visualization experts. Other machine learning-based approaches often work like black-box and are difficult to understand why a specific visualization is recommended, limiting the wider adoption of these approaches. This paper fills the gap by presenting KG4Vis, a knowledge graph (KG)-based approach for visualization recommendation. It does not require manual specifications of visualization rules and can also guarantee good explainability. Specifically, we propose a framework for building knowledge graphs, consisting of three types of entities (i.e., data features, data columns and visualization design choices) and the relations between them, to model the mapping rules between data and effective visualizations. A TransE-based embedding technique is employed to learn the embeddings of both entities and relations of the knowledge graph from existing dataset-visualization pairs. Such embeddings intrinsically model the desirable visualization rules. Then, given a new dataset, effective visualizations can be inferred from the knowledge graph with semantically meaningful rules. We conducted extensive evaluations to assess the proposed approach, including quantitative comparisons, case studies and expert interviews. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

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In modern relational machine learning it is common to encounter large graphs that arise via interactions or similarities between observations in many domains. Further, in many cases the target entities for analysis are actually signals on such graphs. We propose to compare and organize such datasets of graph signals by using an earth mover's distance (EMD) with a geodesic cost over the underlying graph. Typically, EMD is computed by optimizing over the cost of transporting one probability distribution to another over an underlying metric space. However, this is inefficient when computing the EMD between many signals. Here, we propose an unbalanced graph earth mover's distance that efficiently embeds the unbalanced EMD on an underlying graph into an $L^1$ space, whose metric we call unbalanced diffusion earth mover's distance (UDEMD). This leads us to an efficient nearest neighbors kernel over many signals defined on a large graph. Next, we show how this gives distances between graph signals that are robust to noise. Finally, we apply this to organizing patients based on clinical notes who are modelled as signals on the SNOMED-CT medical knowledge graph, embedding lymphoblast cells modeled as signals on a gene graph, and organizing genes modeled as signals over a large peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cell graph. In each case, we show that UDEMD-based embeddings find accurate distances that are highly efficient compared to other methods.

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