Meta-learning, or learning to learn, is the science of systematically observing how different machine learning approaches perform on a wide range of learning tasks, and then learning from this experience, or meta-data, to learn new tasks much faster than otherwise possible. Not only does this dramatically speed up and improve the design of machine learning pipelines or neural architectures, it also allows us to replace hand-engineered algorithms with novel approaches learned in a data-driven way. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of the art in this fascinating and continuously evolving field.
Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) has been proposed to improve Knowledge Graphs by filling in missing connections via link prediction or relation extraction. One of the main difficulties for KGC is a low resource problem. Previous approaches assume sufficient training triples to learn versatile vectors for entities and relations, or a satisfactory number of labeled sentences to train a competent relation extraction model. However, low resource relations are very common in KGs, and those newly added relations often do not have many known samples for training. In this work, we aim at predicting new facts under a challenging setting where only limited training instances are available. We propose a general framework called Weighted Relation Adversarial Network, which utilizes an adversarial procedure to help adapt knowledge/features learned from high resource relations to different but related low resource relations. Specifically, the framework takes advantage of a relation discriminator to distinguish between samples from different relations, and help learn relation-invariant features more transferable from source relations to target relations. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms previous methods regarding low resource settings for both link prediction and relation extraction.