知识表示(knowledge representation)是指把知识客体中的知识因子与知识关联起来,便于人们识别和理解知识。知识表示是知识组织的前提和基础,任何知识组织方法都是要建立在知识表示的基础上。知识表示有主观知识表示和客观知识表示两种。

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摘要: 知识图谱的概念由谷歌于2012年提出,随后逐渐成为人工智能领域的一个研究热点,已在信息搜索、自动问答、决策分析等应用中发挥作用。虽然知识图谱在各领域展现出了巨大的潜力,但不难发现目前缺乏成熟的知识图谱构建平台,需要对知识图谱的构建体系进行研究,以满足不同的行业应用需求。文中以知识图谱构建为主线,首先介绍目前主流的通用知识图谱和领域知识图谱,描述两者在构建过程中的区别;然后,分类讨论图谱构建过程中存在的问题和挑战,并针对这些问题和挑战,分类描述目前图谱构建过程中的知识抽取、知识表示、知识融合、知识推理、知识存储5个层面的解决方法和策略;最后,展望未来可能的研究方向。

http://www.jsjkx.com/CN/10.11896/jsjkx.200700010

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In this paper, we propose a new mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model ontology and a novel constraint typology of MILP formulations. MILP is a commonly used mathematical programming technique for modelling and solving real-life scheduling, routing, planning, resource allocation, and timetabling optimization problems providing optimized business solutions for industry sectors such as manufacturing, agriculture, defence, healthcare, medicine, energy, finance, and transportation. Despite the numerous real-life Combinatorial Optimization Problems found and solved and millions yet to be discovered and formulated, the number of types of constraints (the building blocks of a MILP) is relatively small. In the search for a suitable machine-readable knowledge representation structure for MILPs, we propose an optimization modelling tree built based upon an MILP model ontology that can be used as a guide for automated systems to elicit an MILP model from end-users on their combinatorial business optimization problems. Our ultimate aim is to develop a machine-readable knowledge representation for MILP that allows us to map an end-user's natural language description of the business optimization problem to an MILP formal specification as a first step towards automated mathematical modelling.

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