RNNs之所以称为循环神经网路,即一个序列当前的输出与前面的输出也有关。具体的表现形式为网络会对前面的信息进行记忆并应用于当前输出的计算中,即隐藏层之间的节点不再无连接而是有连接的,并且隐藏层的输入不仅包括输入层的输出还包括上一时刻隐藏层的输出。理论上,RNNs能够对任何长度的序列数据进行处理。但是在实践中,为了降低复杂性往往假设当前的状态只与前面的几个状态相关

The goal of session-based recommendation (SR) models is to utilize the information from past actions (e.g. item/product clicks) in a session to recommend items that a user is likely to click next. Recently it has been shown that the sequence of item interactions in a session can be modeled as graph-structured data to better account for complex item transitions. Graph neural networks (GNNs) can learn useful representations for such session-graphs, and have been shown to improve over sequential models such as recurrent neural networks [14]. However, we note that these GNN-based recommendation models suffer from popularity bias: the models are biased towards recommending popular items, and fail to recommend relevant long-tail items (less popular or less frequent items). Therefore, these models perform poorly for the less popular new items arriving daily in a practical online setting. We demonstrate that this issue is, in part, related to the magnitude or norm of the learned item and session-graph representations (embedding vectors). We propose a training procedure that mitigates this issue by using normalized representations. The models using normalized item and session-graph representations perform significantly better: i. for the less popular long-tail items in the offline setting, and ii. for the less popular newly introduced items in the online setting. Furthermore, our approach significantly improves upon existing state-of-the-art on three benchmark datasets.

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