LESS 是一个开源的样式语言,受到 Sass 的影响。严格来说,LESS 是一个嵌套的元语言,符合语法规范的 CSS 语句也是符合规范的 Less 代码。

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论文摘要: Multi-paragraph推理对于open-domain问答(OpenQA)是必不可少的,尽管在当前的OpenQA系统中受到的关注较少。在这项工作中,我们提出一个知识增强图神经网络(KGNN),使用实体对多个段落进行推理。为了显式地捕捉到实体的关系,KGNN利用关系事实知识图谱构建实体图谱。实验结果表明,与HotpotQA数据集上的基线方法相比,KGNN在分散注意力和完整的wiki设置方面都有更好的表现。我们进一步的分析表明,KGNN在检索更多的段落方面是有效和具有鲁棒性的。

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There have been recent calls for research on the human side of software engineering and its impact on various factors such as productivity, developer happiness and project success. An analysis of which challenges in software engineering teams are most frequent is still missing. We aim to provide a starting point for a theory about relevant human challenges and their causes in software engineering. We establish a reusable set of challenges and start out by investigating the effect of team virtualization. Virtual teams often use digital communication and consist of members with different nationalities. We designed a survey instrument and asked respondents to assess the frequency and criticality of a set of challenges, separated in context "within teams" as well as "between teams and clients", compiled from previous empiric work, blog posts and pilot survey feedback. For the team challenges, we asked if mitigation measures were already in place. Respondents were also asked to provide information about their team setup. The survey also measured Schwartz human values. Finally, respondents were asked if there were additional challenges at their workplace. We report on the results obtained from 192 respondents. We present a set of challenges that takes the survey feedback into account and introduce two categories of challenges; "interpersonal" and "intrapersonal". We found no evidence for links between human values and challenges. We found some significant links between the number of distinct nationalities in a team and certain challenges, with less frequent and critical challenges occurring if 2-3 different nationalities were present compared to a team having members of just one nationality or more than three. A higher degree of virtualization seems to increase the frequency of some human challenges.

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There have been recent calls for research on the human side of software engineering and its impact on various factors such as productivity, developer happiness and project success. An analysis of which challenges in software engineering teams are most frequent is still missing. We aim to provide a starting point for a theory about relevant human challenges and their causes in software engineering. We establish a reusable set of challenges and start out by investigating the effect of team virtualization. Virtual teams often use digital communication and consist of members with different nationalities. We designed a survey instrument and asked respondents to assess the frequency and criticality of a set of challenges, separated in context "within teams" as well as "between teams and clients", compiled from previous empiric work, blog posts and pilot survey feedback. For the team challenges, we asked if mitigation measures were already in place. Respondents were also asked to provide information about their team setup. The survey also measured Schwartz human values. Finally, respondents were asked if there were additional challenges at their workplace. We report on the results obtained from 192 respondents. We present a set of challenges that takes the survey feedback into account and introduce two categories of challenges; "interpersonal" and "intrapersonal". We found no evidence for links between human values and challenges. We found some significant links between the number of distinct nationalities in a team and certain challenges, with less frequent and critical challenges occurring if 2-3 different nationalities were present compared to a team having members of just one nationality or more than three. A higher degree of virtualization seems to increase the frequency of some human challenges.

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