监督学习是指:利用一组已知类别的样本调整分类器的参数,使其达到所要求性能的过程,也称为监督训练或有教师学习。 监督学习是从标记的训练数据来推断一个功能的机器学习任务。训练数据包括一套训练示例。在监督学习中,每个实例都是由一个输入对象(通常为矢量)和一个期望的输出值(也称为监督信号)组成。监督学习算法是分析该训练数据,并产生一个推断的功能,其可以用于映射出新的实例。一个最佳的方案将允许该算法来正确地决定那些看不见的实例的类标签。这就要求学习算法是在一种“合理”的方式从一种从训练数据到看不见的情况下形成。

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在计算机视觉领域中,语义分割是场景解析和行为识别的关键任务,基于深度卷积神经网络的图像语义分割方法已经取得突破性进展。语义分割的任务是对图像中的每一个像素分配所属的类别标签,属于像素级的图像理解。目标检测仅定位目标的边界框,而语义分割需要分割出图像中的目标。本文首先分析和描述了语义分割领域存在的困难和挑战,介绍了语义分割算法性能评价的常用数据集和客观评测指标。然后,归纳和总结了现阶段主流的基于深度卷积神经网络的图像语义分割方法的国内外研究现状,依据网络训练是否需要像素级的标注图像,将现有方法分为基于监督学习的语义分割和基于弱监督学习的语义分割两类,详细阐述并分析这两类方法各自的优势和不足。本文在PASCAL VOC(pattern analysis, statistical modelling and computational learning visual object classes)2012数据集上比较了部分监督学习和弱监督学习的语义分割模型,并给出了监督学习模型和弱监督学习模型中的最优方法,以及对应的MIoU(mean intersection-over-union)。最后,指出了图像语义分割领域未来可能的热点方向。

http://www.cjig.cn/jig/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?file_no=20200601&flag=1

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A common vision from science fiction is that robots will one day inhabit our physical spaces, sense the world as we do, assist our physical labours, and communicate with us through natural language. Here we study how to design artificial agents that can interact naturally with humans using the simplification of a virtual environment. This setting nevertheless integrates a number of the central challenges of artificial intelligence (AI) research: complex visual perception and goal-directed physical control, grounded language comprehension and production, and multi-agent social interaction. To build agents that can robustly interact with humans, we would ideally train them while they interact with humans. However, this is presently impractical. Therefore, we approximate the role of the human with another learned agent, and use ideas from inverse reinforcement learning to reduce the disparities between human-human and agent-agent interactive behaviour. Rigorously evaluating our agents poses a great challenge, so we develop a variety of behavioural tests, including evaluation by humans who watch videos of agents or interact directly with them. These evaluations convincingly demonstrate that interactive training and auxiliary losses improve agent behaviour beyond what is achieved by supervised learning of actions alone. Further, we demonstrate that agent capabilities generalise beyond literal experiences in the dataset. Finally, we train evaluation models whose ratings of agents agree well with human judgement, thus permitting the evaluation of new agent models without additional effort. Taken together, our results in this virtual environment provide evidence that large-scale human behavioural imitation is a promising tool to create intelligent, interactive agents, and the challenge of reliably evaluating such agents is possible to surmount.

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A common vision from science fiction is that robots will one day inhabit our physical spaces, sense the world as we do, assist our physical labours, and communicate with us through natural language. Here we study how to design artificial agents that can interact naturally with humans using the simplification of a virtual environment. This setting nevertheless integrates a number of the central challenges of artificial intelligence (AI) research: complex visual perception and goal-directed physical control, grounded language comprehension and production, and multi-agent social interaction. To build agents that can robustly interact with humans, we would ideally train them while they interact with humans. However, this is presently impractical. Therefore, we approximate the role of the human with another learned agent, and use ideas from inverse reinforcement learning to reduce the disparities between human-human and agent-agent interactive behaviour. Rigorously evaluating our agents poses a great challenge, so we develop a variety of behavioural tests, including evaluation by humans who watch videos of agents or interact directly with them. These evaluations convincingly demonstrate that interactive training and auxiliary losses improve agent behaviour beyond what is achieved by supervised learning of actions alone. Further, we demonstrate that agent capabilities generalise beyond literal experiences in the dataset. Finally, we train evaluation models whose ratings of agents agree well with human judgement, thus permitting the evaluation of new agent models without additional effort. Taken together, our results in this virtual environment provide evidence that large-scale human behavioural imitation is a promising tool to create intelligent, interactive agents, and the challenge of reliably evaluating such agents is possible to surmount.

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