操作系统(Operating System,简称OS,港台译作「作业系统」)是管理计算机硬件与软件资源的程序,同时也是计算机系统的核心与基石。操作系统的型态非常多样,不同机器安装的操作系统可从简单到复杂,可从手机的嵌入式系统到超级计算机的大型操作系统。

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Everyone should enjoy CS if you have a good teacher to teach you a good course.

新冠肆虐,网课当道,CS爆火,这一系列的事件都让自学计算机成为了一种潮流。

随着欧美众多名校将质量极高的计算机课程全部开源,自学CS成了一件可操作性极强的事情。毫不夸张的说,只要你有毅力和兴趣,自学的成果完全不亚于你在国内任何一所大学受到的本科CS教育(当然,这里单指计算机专业领域,大学带给你的显然不止是专业知识)。

我很庆幸在自己大一的时候就选择了自学CS这条路,它让我爱上了计算机这门学科,也无比丰富了我的视野。

但同时,自学这条路也有很多困难和阻力:课程繁多不知如何选择,资料零散甚至残缺,作业难度不知深浅,课内任务还需要花时间应付······这些主客观因素叠加到一起,使得好课虽多,却只能在收藏夹里吃灰。

在北大信科的第四个年头,我想把这一路自学走来的经验和教训,把那些让我受益终身的课程记录下来,分享给大家,形成了这本CS自学指南,以期能给所有想自学计算机的朋友一点帮助。

我的目标是让一个刚刚接触计算机的小白,可以完全凭借这些开源社区的优质资源,少走弯路,在2-3年内成长为一个有扎实的数学功底和代码能力,经历过数十个千行代码量的Project的洗礼,掌握至少C/C++/Java/JS/Python/Go/Rust等主流语言,对算法、电路、体系、网络、操统、编译、人工智能、机器学习、计算机视觉、自然语言处理、强化学习、密码学、信息论、博弈论、数值分析、统计学、分布式、数据库、图形学、Web开发、云服务、超算等等方面均有所涉猎的全能程序员。此后,无论是选择科研还是就业,我相信你都会有相当的竞争力。

https://github.com/PKUFlyingPig/pku-cs-self-learning

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Embedded and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices have seen an increase in adoption in many domains. The security of these devices is of great importance as they are often used to control critical infrastructure, medical devices, and vehicles. Existing solutions to isolate microcontroller (MCU) resources in order to increase their security face significant challenges such as specific hardware unavailability, Memory Protection Unit (MPU) limitations and a significant lack of Direct Memory Access (DMA) support. Nevertheless, DMA is fundamental for the power and performance requirements of embedded applications. In this paper, we present D-Box, a systematic approach to enable secure DMA operations for compartmentalization solutions of embedded applications using real-time operating systems (RTOS). D-Box defines a reference architecture and a workflow to protect DMA operations holistically. It provides practical methods to harden the kernel and define capability-based security policies for easy definition of DMA operations with strong security properties. We implemented a D-Box prototype for the Cortex-M3/M4 on top of the popular FreeRTOS-MPU (F-MPU). The D-Box procedures and a stricter security model enabled DMA operations, yet it exposed 41 times less ROP (return-orienting-programming) gadgets when compared with the standard F-MPU. D-Box adds only a 2% processor overhead while reducing the power consumption of peripheral operation benchmarks by 18.2%. The security properties and performance of D-Box were tested and confirmed on a real-world case study of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) application.

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