Resource Description Framework (RDF) triplestores and Property Graph (PG) database systems are two approaches for data management that are based on modeling, storing and querying graph-like data. Given the heterogeneity between these systems, it becomes necessary to develop methods to allow interoperability among them. While there exist some approaches to exchange data and schema between RDF and PG databases, they lack compatibility and even a solid formal foundation. In this paper, we study the semantic interoperability between RDF and PG databases. Specifically, we present two direct mappings (schema-dependent and schema-independent) for transforming an RDF database into a PG database. We show that the proposed mappings possess the fundamental properties of semantics preservation and information preservation. The existence of both mappings allows us to conclude that the PG data model subsumes the expressiveness or information capacity of the RDF data model.
In the past decade, the healthcare industry has made significant advances in the digitization of patient information. However, a lack of interoperability among healthcare systems still imposes a high cost to patients, hospitals, and insurers. Currently, most systems pass messages using idiosyncratic messaging standards that require specialized knowledge to interpret. This increases the cost of systems integration and often puts more advanced uses of data out of reach. In this project, we demonstrate how two open standards, FHIR and RDF, can be combined both to integrate data from disparate sources in real-time and make that data queryable and susceptible to automated inference. To validate the effectiveness of the semantic engine, we perform simulations of real-time data feeds and demonstrate how they can be combined and used by client-side applications with no knowledge of the underlying sources.
In this chapter, we give an introduction to symbolic artificial intelligence (AI) and discuss its relation and application to multimedia. We begin by defining what symbolic AI is, what distinguishes it from non-symbolic approaches, such as machine learning, and how it can used in the construction of advanced multimedia applications. We then introduce description logic (DL) and use it to discuss symbolic representation and reasoning. DL is the logical underpinning of OWL, the most successful family of ontology languages. After discussing DL, we present OWL and related Semantic Web technologies, such as RDF and SPARQL. We conclude the chapter by discussing a hybrid model for multimedia representation, called Hyperknowledge. Throughout the text, we make references to technologies and extensions specifically designed to solve the kinds of problems that arise in multimedia representation.
Traditionally, most data-to-text applications have been designed using a modular pipeline architecture, in which non-linguistic input data is converted into natural language through several intermediate transformations. In contrast, recent neural models for data-to-text generation have been proposed as end-to-end approaches, where the non-linguistic input is rendered in natural language with much less explicit intermediate representations in-between. This study introduces a systematic comparison between neural pipeline and end-to-end data-to-text approaches for the generation of text from RDF triples. Both architectures were implemented making use of state-of-the art deep learning methods as the encoder-decoder Gated-Recurrent Units (GRU) and Transformer. Automatic and human evaluations together with a qualitative analysis suggest that having explicit intermediate steps in the generation process results in better texts than the ones generated by end-to-end approaches. Moreover, the pipeline models generalize better to unseen inputs. Data and code are publicly available.