Fifth-generation (5G) systems are designed to enable convergent access-agnostic service availability. This means that 5G services will be available over 5G New Radio air interface and also through other non-Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) access networks, e.g., IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi). 3GPP has recently published the Release 16 that includes trusted non-3GPP access network concept and wireless wireline convergence. The main goal of this tutorial is to present an overview of access to 5G core via non-3GPP access networks specified by 3GPP until Release 16 (i.e., untrusted, trusted, and wireline access). The tutorial describes aspects of the convergence of a 5G system and these non-3GPP access networks, such as the authentication and authorization procedures and the data session establishment from the point of view of protocol stack and exchanged messages between the network functions. In order to illustrate several concepts and part of 3GPP specification, we present a basic but fully operational implementation of untrusted non-3GPP access using WLAN. We perform experiments that demonstrate how a Wi-Fi user is authorized in a 5G core and establishes user plane connectivity to a data network. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of this access in terms of time consumed, number of messages, and protocol overhead to established data sessions.

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This paper considers the secretive coded caching problem with shared caches in which no user must have access to the files that it did not demand. In a shared cache network, the users are served by a smaller number of helper caches and each user is connected to exactly one helper cache. To ensure the secrecy constraint in shared cache networks, each user is required to have an individual cache of at least unit file size. For this setting, a secretive coded caching scheme was proposed recently in the literature (\enquote{Secretive Coded Caching with Shared Caches}, in \textit{IEEE Communications Letters}, 2021), and it requires a subpacketization level which is in the exponential order of the number of helper caches. By utilizing the PDA constructions, we propose a procedure to obtain new secretive coded caching schemes for shared caches with reduced subpacketization levels. We also show that the existing secretive coded caching scheme for shared caches can be recovered using our procedure. Furthermore, we derive a lower bound on the secretive transmission rate using cut-set arguments and demonstrate the order-optimality of the proposed secretive coded caching scheme.

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Important decisions that impact human lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems (ADMS) can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory outcomes, violate individual privacy, and undermine human self-determination. New governance mechanisms are thus needed that help organisations design and deploy ADMS in ways that are ethical, while enabling society to reap the full economic and social benefits of automation. In this article, we consider the feasibility and efficacy of ethics-based auditing (EBA) as a governance mechanism that allows organisations to validate claims made about their ADMS. Building on previous work, we define EBA as a structured process whereby an entity's present or past behaviour is assessed for consistency with relevant principles or norms. We then offer three contributions to the existing literature. First, we provide a theoretical explanation of how EBA can contribute to good governance by promoting procedural regularity and transparency. Second, we propose seven criteria for how to design and implement EBA procedures successfully. Third, we identify and discuss the conceptual, technical, social, economic, organisational, and institutional constraints associated with EBA. We conclude that EBA should be considered an integral component of multifaced approaches to managing the ethical risks posed by ADMS.

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Colosseum is an open-access and publicly-available large-scale wireless testbed for experimental research via virtualized and softwarized waveforms and protocol stacks on a fully programmable, "white-box" platform. Through 256 state-of-the-art Software-defined Radios and a Massive Channel Emulator core, Colosseum can model virtually any scenario, enabling the design, development and testing of solutions at scale in a variety of deployments and channel conditions. These Colosseum radio-frequency scenarios are reproduced through high-fidelity FPGA-based emulation with finite-impulse response filters. Filters model the taps of desired wireless channels and apply them to the signals generated by the radio nodes, faithfully mimicking the conditions of real-world wireless environments. In this paper we describe the architecture of Colosseum and its experimentation and emulation capabilities. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of Colosseum for experimental research at scale through exemplary use cases including prevailing wireless technologies (e.g., cellular and Wi-Fi) in spectrum sharing and unmanned aerial vehicle scenarios. A roadmap for Colosseum future updates concludes the paper.

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Age of Information (AoI) reflects the time that is elapsed from the generation of a packet by a 5G user equipment(UE) to the reception of the packet by a controller. A design of an AoI-aware radio resource scheduler for UEs via reinforcement learning is proposed in this paper. In this paper, we consider a remote control environment in which a number of UEs are transmitting time-sensitive measurements to a remote controller. We consider the AoI minimization problem and formulate the problem as a trade-off between minimizing the sum of the expected AoI of all UEs and maximizing the throughput of the network. Inspired by the success of machine learning in solving large networking problems at low complexity, we develop a reinforcement learning-based method to solve the formulated problem. We used the state-of-the-art proximal policy optimization algorithm to solve this problem. Our simulation results showthat the proposed algorithm outperforms the considered baselines in terms of minimizing the expected AoI while maintaining the network throughput.

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Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) improve traffic efficiency, traffic management, driver's comfort, and safety. They consist of a broad range of components, including vehicles, sensors, Base Stations, Road Side Units, and road infrastructure (i.e., traffic signals). ITS of the near future will need to support multi-modal transportation schemes (including ground and aerial vehicles, so-called Urban Air Mobility). ITS will have to be integrated with Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM) and rely on 3 Dimensional (3D) connectivity provided by Integrated Aerial-Terrestrial 6G networks to achieve this support. In other words, various types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will become integral parts of future ITS due to their mobility, autonomous operation, and communication/processing capabilities. This article presents our view on the future integration of ITS and UTM systems, enabling wireless technologies and open research questions. We also present how UAVs can be used to enhance the performance of the currently available ITS.

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The integration of air and ground smart vehicles is becoming a new paradigm of future transportation. A decent number of smart unmanned vehicles or UAS will be sharing the national airspace for various purposes, such as express delivery, surveillance, etc. However, the proliferation of UAS also brings challenges considering the safe integration of them into the current Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems. Especially when the current Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasting (ADS-B) systems do not have message authentication mechanisms, it can not distinguish whether an authorized UAS is using the corresponding airspace. In this paper, we aim to address these practical challenges in two folds. We first use blockchain to provide a secure authentication platform for flight plan approval and sharing between the existing ATM facilities. We then use the fountain code to encode the authentication payloads and adapt them into the de facto communication protocol of ATM. This maintains backward compatibility and ensures the verification success rate under the noisy broadcasting channel. We simulate the realistic wireless communication scenarios and theoretically prove that our proposed authentication framework is with low latency and highly compatible with existing ATM communication protocols.

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Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite Network (SatNet) with their mega-constellations are expected to play a key role in providing ubiquitous Internet and communications services in the future. LEO SatNets will provide wide-area coverage and support service availability, continuity, and scalability. To support the integration of SatNets and terrestrial Fifth Generation (5G)networks and beyond, the satellite communication industry has become increasingly involved with the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization activities for 5G. In this work, we review the 3GPP standardization activities for the integration of SatNets in 5G and beyond. The 3GPP use cases of SatNets are highlighted and potential requirements to realize them are summarized as well. The impacted areas of New Radio(NR) are discussed with some potential solutions. The foreseen requirements for the management and orchestration of SatNets within 5G are described. Future standardization directions are discussed to support the full integration of SatNets in SixthGeneration (6G) with the goal of ubiquitous global connectivity.

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Perception is a critical component of high-integrity applications of robotics and autonomous systems, such as self-driving vehicles. In these applications, failure of perception systems may put human life at risk, and a broad adoption of these technologies requires the development of methodologies to guarantee and monitor safe operation. Despite the paramount importance of perception systems, currently there is no formal approach for system-level monitoring. In this work, we propose a mathematical model for runtime monitoring and fault detection and identification in perception systems. Towards this goal, we draw connections with the literature on diagnosability in multiprocessor systems, and generalize it to account for modules with heterogeneous outputs that interact over time. The resulting temporal diagnostic graphs (i) provide a framework to reason over the consistency of perception outputs -- across modules and over time -- thus enabling fault detection, (ii) allow us to establish formal guarantees on the maximum number of faults that can be uniquely identified in a given perception system, and (iii) enable the design of efficient algorithms for fault identification. We demonstrate our monitoring system, dubbed PerSyS, in realistic simulations using the LGSVL self-driving simulator and the Apollo Auto autonomy software stack, and show that PerSyS is able to detect failures in challenging scenarios (including scenarios that have caused self-driving car accidents in recent years), and is able to correctly identify faults while entailing a minimal computation overhead (< 5 ms on a single-core CPU).

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To solve the information explosion problem and enhance user experience in various online applications, recommender systems have been developed to model users preferences. Although numerous efforts have been made toward more personalized recommendations, recommender systems still suffer from several challenges, such as data sparsity and cold start. In recent years, generating recommendations with the knowledge graph as side information has attracted considerable interest. Such an approach can not only alleviate the abovementioned issues for a more accurate recommendation, but also provide explanations for recommended items. In this paper, we conduct a systematical survey of knowledge graph-based recommender systems. We collect recently published papers in this field and summarize them from two perspectives. On the one hand, we investigate the proposed algorithms by focusing on how the papers utilize the knowledge graph for accurate and explainable recommendation. On the other hand, we introduce datasets used in these works. Finally, we propose several potential research directions in this field.

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This paper identifies the factors that have an impact on mobile recommender systems. Recommender systems have become a technology that has been widely used by various online applications in situations where there is an information overload problem. Numerous applications such as e-Commerce, video platforms and social networks provide personalized recommendations to their users and this has improved the user experience and vendor revenues. The development of recommender systems has been focused mostly on the proposal of new algorithms that provide more accurate recommendations. However, the use of mobile devices and the rapid growth of the internet and networking infrastructure has brought the necessity of using mobile recommender systems. The links between web and mobile recommender systems are described along with how the recommendations in mobile environments can be improved. This work is focused on identifying the links between web and mobile recommender systems and to provide solid future directions that aim to lead in a more integrated mobile recommendation domain.

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