eHealth (Health Informatics/Medical Informatics) field is growing worldwide due to acknowledge of reputable Organizations such as World Health Organization, Institute of Medicine in USA and several others. This field is facing number of challenges and there is need to classify these challenges mentioned by different researchers of this area. The purpose of this study is to classify different eHealth challenges in broader categories. We also analyzed recent eHealth Applications to identify current trends of such applications. In this paper, we identify stakeholders who are responsible to contribute in a particular eHealth challenge. Through eHealth application analysis, we categories these applications based on different factors. We identify different socio-economic benefits, which these applications can provide. We also present ecosystem of an eHealth application. We gave recommendations for eHealth challenges relevant to Information Technology domain. We conclude our discussion by specifying areas for future research and recommending researchers to work on identify which type of disease can control and manage by different eHealth applications.
Extremism research has grown as an open problem for several countries during recent years, especially due to the apparition of movements such as jihadism. This and other extremist groups have taken advantage of different approaches, such as the use of Social Media, to spread their ideology, promote their acts and recruit followers. Natural Language Processing (NLP) represents a way of detecting this type of content, and several authors make use of it to describe and discriminate the discourse held by this groups, with the final objective of detecting and preventing its spread. This survey aims to review the contributions of NLP to the field of extremism research, providing the reader with a comprehensive picture of the state of the art of this research area. The content includes a description and comparison of the frequently used NLP techniques, how they were applied, the insights they provided, the most frequently used NLP software tools and the availability of datasets and data sources for research. Finally, research questions are approached and answered with highlights from the review, while future trends, challenges and directions derived from these highlights are suggested.
The development of eHealth systems has brought great convenience to people's life. Researchers have been combining new technologies to make eHealth systems work better for patients. The Blockchain-based eHealth system becomes popular because of its unique distributed tamper-resistant and privacy-preserving features. However, due to the security issues of the blockchain system, there are many security risks in eHealth systems utilizing the blockchain technology. i.e. 51% attacks can destroy blockchain-based systems. Besides, trivial transactions and frequent calls of smart contracts in the blockchain system bring additional costs and security risks to blockchain-based eHealth systems. Worse still, electronic medical records (EMRs) are controlled by medical institutions rather than patients, which causes privacy leakage issues. In this paper, we propose a medical data Sharing and Privacy-preserving eHealth system based on blockChain technology (SPChain). We combine RepuCoin with the SNARKs-based chameleon hash function to resist underlying blockchain attacks, and design a new chain structure to make microblocks contribute to the weight of blockchain. The system allows patients to share their EMRs among different medical institutions in a privacy-preserving way. Besides, authorized medical institutions can label wrong EMRs with the patients' permissions in the case of misdiagnosis. Security analysis and performance evaluation demonstrate that the proposed system can provide a strong security guarantee with a high efficiency.
The long lifetime and the evolving nature of industrial products make them subject to technical debt at different levels. Despite multiple years of research on technical debt management, our industrial experience shows that introducing systematic technical debt management in a large-scale company is very challenging. To identify the challenges, we provide a conceptual framework for holistic debt management across the product development value stream, which takes multiple categories of debt and their interplays into account.We use this framework to identify multiple challenges that are still open to be explored by the research community. Due to the practical nature of technical debt management, we believe this paper can guide the research community on the needs of industry for the effective application of technical debt management in practice.
Fault tolerance is increasingly being use to design Dependable Digital Systems (DDS), which refers to the capability of a system to keep performing its intended functions in existence of faults. DDS are typically used in Safety-critical system (SCS) such as medical (I&C) devices, Nuclear power Plants (I&C) devices and Aerospace (I&C) systems, the failure in these systems can cause harm to environment, death, injury to people. Different fault tolerance techniques were developed to overcome these issues and that has led to increase the reliability and dependability of applications on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, multiple related works are present dealing with different types of faults and fault tolerance methods in FPGA based systems. Furthermore, a comparison between the evaluation metrics of previous works of Fault Tolerant (FT) techniques like hardware redundancy overhead, time delay, reliability, and performance are also present.
Due to the significance and value in human-computer interaction and natural language processing, task-oriented dialog systems are attracting more and more attention in both academic and industrial communities. In this paper, we survey recent advances and challenges in an issue-specific manner. We discuss three critical topics for task-oriented dialog systems: (1) improving data efficiency to facilitate dialog system modeling in low-resource settings, (2) modeling multi-turn dynamics for dialog policy learning to achieve better task-completion performance, and (3) integrating domain ontology knowledge into the dialog model in both pipeline and end-to-end models. We also review the recent progresses in dialog evaluation and some widely-used corpora. We believe that this survey can shed a light on future research in task-oriented dialog systems.
In recent years, disinformation including fake news, has became a global phenomenon due to its explosive growth, particularly on social media. The wide spread of disinformation and fake news can cause detrimental societal effects. Despite the recent progress in detecting disinformation and fake news, it is still non-trivial due to its complexity, diversity, multi-modality, and costs of fact-checking or annotation. The goal of this chapter is to pave the way for appreciating the challenges and advancements via: (1) introducing the types of information disorder on social media and examine their differences and connections; (2) describing important and emerging tasks to combat disinformation for characterization, detection and attribution; and (3) discussing a weak supervision approach to detect disinformation with limited labeled data. We then provide an overview of the chapters in this book that represent the recent advancements in three related parts: (1) user engagements in the dissemination of information disorder; (2) techniques on detecting and mitigating disinformation; and (3) trending issues such as ethics, blockchain, clickbaits, etc. We hope this book to be a convenient entry point for researchers, practitioners, and students to understand the problems and challenges, learn state-of-the-art solutions for their specific needs, and quickly identify new research problems in their domains.
In the last years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has achieved a notable momentum that may deliver the best of expectations over many application sectors across the field. For this to occur, the entire community stands in front of the barrier of explainability, an inherent problem of AI techniques brought by sub-symbolism (e.g. ensembles or Deep Neural Networks) that were not present in the last hype of AI. Paradigms underlying this problem fall within the so-called eXplainable AI (XAI) field, which is acknowledged as a crucial feature for the practical deployment of AI models. This overview examines the existing literature in the field of XAI, including a prospect toward what is yet to be reached. We summarize previous efforts to define explainability in Machine Learning, establishing a novel definition that covers prior conceptual propositions with a major focus on the audience for which explainability is sought. We then propose and discuss about a taxonomy of recent contributions related to the explainability of different Machine Learning models, including those aimed at Deep Learning methods for which a second taxonomy is built. This literature analysis serves as the background for a series of challenges faced by XAI, such as the crossroads between data fusion and explainability. Our prospects lead toward the concept of Responsible Artificial Intelligence, namely, a methodology for the large-scale implementation of AI methods in real organizations with fairness, model explainability and accountability at its core. Our ultimate goal is to provide newcomers to XAI with a reference material in order to stimulate future research advances, but also to encourage experts and professionals from other disciplines to embrace the benefits of AI in their activity sectors, without any prior bias for its lack of interpretability.
Privacy is a major good for users of personalized services such as recommender systems. When applied to the field of health informatics, privacy concerns of users may be amplified, but the possible utility of such services is also high. Despite availability of technologies such as k-anonymity, differential privacy, privacy-aware recommendation, and personalized privacy trade-offs, little research has been conducted on the users' willingness to share health data for usage in such systems. In two conjoint-decision studies (sample size n=521), we investigate importance and utility of privacy-preserving techniques related to sharing of personal health data for k-anonymity and differential privacy. Users were asked to pick a preferred sharing scenario depending on the recipient of the data, the benefit of sharing data, the type of data, and the parameterized privacy. Users disagreed with sharing data for commercial purposes regarding mental illnesses and with high de-anonymization risks but showed little concern when data is used for scientific purposes and is related to physical illnesses. Suggestions for health recommender system development are derived from the findings.
Music recommender systems (MRS) have experienced a boom in recent years, thanks to the emergence and success of online streaming services, which nowadays make available almost all music in the world at the user's fingertip. While today's MRS considerably help users to find interesting music in these huge catalogs, MRS research is still facing substantial challenges. In particular when it comes to build, incorporate, and evaluate recommendation strategies that integrate information beyond simple user--item interactions or content-based descriptors, but dig deep into the very essence of listener needs, preferences, and intentions, MRS research becomes a big endeavor and related publications quite sparse. The purpose of this trends and survey article is twofold. We first identify and shed light on what we believe are the most pressing challenges MRS research is facing, from both academic and industry perspectives. We review the state of the art towards solving these challenges and discuss its limitations. Second, we detail possible future directions and visions we contemplate for the further evolution of the field. The article should therefore serve two purposes: giving the interested reader an overview of current challenges in MRS research and providing guidance for young researchers by identifying interesting, yet under-researched, directions in the field.
Natural language processing (NLP) has recently gained much attention for representing and analysing human language computationally. It has spread its applications in various fields such as machine translation, email spam detection, information extraction, summarization, medical, and question answering etc. The paper distinguishes four phases by discussing different levels of NLP and components of Natural Language Generation (NLG) followed by presenting the history and evolution of NLP, state of the art presenting the various applications of NLP and current trends and challenges.