In this paper, we hypothesize that the effects of the degree of typicality in natural semantic categories can be generated based on the structure of artificial categories learned with deep learning models. Motivated by the human approach to representing natural semantic categories and based on the Prototype Theory foundations, we propose a novel Computational Prototype Model (CPM) to represent the internal structure of semantic categories. Unlike other prototype learning approaches, our mathematical framework proposes a first approach to provide deep neural networks with the ability to model abstract semantic concepts such as category central semantic meaning, typicality degree of an object's image, and family resemblance relationship. We proposed several methodologies based on the typicality's concept to evaluate our CPM-model in image semantic processing tasks such as image classification, a global semantic description, and transfer learning. Our experiments on different image datasets, such as ImageNet and Coco, showed that our approach might be an admissible proposition in the effort to endow machines with greater power of abstraction for the semantic representation of objects' categories.

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Graphs are widely used as a popular representation of the network structure of connected data. Graph data can be found in a broad spectrum of application domains such as social systems, ecosystems, biological networks, knowledge graphs, and information systems. With the continuous penetration of artificial intelligence technologies, graph learning (i.e., machine learning on graphs) is gaining attention from both researchers and practitioners. Graph learning proves effective for many tasks, such as classification, link prediction, and matching. Generally, graph learning methods extract relevant features of graphs by taking advantage of machine learning algorithms. In this survey, we present a comprehensive overview on the state-of-the-art of graph learning. Special attention is paid to four categories of existing graph learning methods, including graph signal processing, matrix factorization, random walk, and deep learning. Major models and algorithms under these categories are reviewed respectively. We examine graph learning applications in areas such as text, images, science, knowledge graphs, and combinatorial optimization. In addition, we discuss several promising research directions in this field.

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Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are widely used for analyzing graph-structured data. Most GNN methods are highly sensitive to the quality of graph structures and usually require a perfect graph structure for learning informative embeddings. However, the pervasiveness of noise in graphs necessitates learning robust representations for real-world problems. To improve the robustness of GNN models, many studies have been proposed around the central concept of Graph Structure Learning (GSL), which aims to jointly learn an optimized graph structure and corresponding representations. Towards this end, in the presented survey, we broadly review recent progress of GSL methods for learning robust representations. Specifically, we first formulate a general paradigm of GSL, and then review state-of-the-art methods classified by how they model graph structures, followed by applications that incorporate the idea of GSL in other graph tasks. Finally, we point out some issues in current studies and discuss future directions.

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Knowledge is a formal way of understanding the world, providing a human-level cognition and intelligence for the next-generation artificial intelligence (AI). One of the representations of knowledge is the structural relations between entities. An effective way to automatically acquire this important knowledge, called Relation Extraction (RE), a sub-task of information extraction, plays a vital role in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Its purpose is to identify semantic relations between entities from natural language text. To date, there are several studies for RE in previous works, which have documented these techniques based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) become a prevailing technique in this research. Especially, the supervised and distant supervision methods based on DNNs are the most popular and reliable solutions for RE. This article 1)introduces some general concepts, and further 2)gives a comprehensive overview of DNNs in RE from two points of view: supervised RE, which attempts to improve the standard RE systems, and distant supervision RE, which adopts DNNs to design the sentence encoder and the de-noise method. We further 3)cover some novel methods and describe some recent trends and discuss possible future research directions for this task.

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Deep neural networks have been able to outperform humans in some cases like image recognition and image classification. However, with the emergence of various novel categories, the ability to continuously widen the learning capability of such networks from limited samples, still remains a challenge. Techniques like Meta-Learning and/or few-shot learning showed promising results, where they can learn or generalize to a novel category/task based on prior knowledge. In this paper, we perform a study of the existing few-shot meta-learning techniques in the computer vision domain based on their method and evaluation metrics. We provide a taxonomy for the techniques and categorize them as data-augmentation, embedding, optimization and semantics based learning for few-shot, one-shot and zero-shot settings. We then describe the seminal work done in each category and discuss their approach towards solving the predicament of learning from few samples. Lastly we provide a comparison of these techniques on the commonly used benchmark datasets: Omniglot, and MiniImagenet, along with a discussion towards the future direction of improving the performance of these techniques towards the final goal of outperforming humans.

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Deep neural networks (DNNs) are successful in many computer vision tasks. However, the most accurate DNNs require millions of parameters and operations, making them energy, computation and memory intensive. This impedes the deployment of large DNNs in low-power devices with limited compute resources. Recent research improves DNN models by reducing the memory requirement, energy consumption, and number of operations without significantly decreasing the accuracy. This paper surveys the progress of low-power deep learning and computer vision, specifically in regards to inference, and discusses the methods for compacting and accelerating DNN models. The techniques can be divided into four major categories: (1) parameter quantization and pruning, (2) compressed convolutional filters and matrix factorization, (3) network architecture search, and (4) knowledge distillation. We analyze the accuracy, advantages, disadvantages, and potential solutions to the problems with the techniques in each category. We also discuss new evaluation metrics as a guideline for future research.

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We introduce the Neural State Machine, seeking to bridge the gap between the neural and symbolic views of AI and integrate their complementary strengths for the task of visual reasoning. Given an image, we first predict a probabilistic graph that represents its underlying semantics and serves as a structured world model. Then, we perform sequential reasoning over the graph, iteratively traversing its nodes to answer a given question or draw a new inference. In contrast to most neural architectures that are designed to closely interact with the raw sensory data, our model operates instead in an abstract latent space, by transforming both the visual and linguistic modalities into semantic concept-based representations, thereby achieving enhanced transparency and modularity. We evaluate our model on VQA-CP and GQA, two recent VQA datasets that involve compositionality, multi-step inference and diverse reasoning skills, achieving state-of-the-art results in both cases. We provide further experiments that illustrate the model's strong generalization capacity across multiple dimensions, including novel compositions of concepts, changes in the answer distribution, and unseen linguistic structures, demonstrating the qualities and efficacy of our approach.

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In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning architecture for multi-label zero-shot learning (ML-ZSL), which is able to predict multiple unseen class labels for each input instance. Inspired by the way humans utilize semantic knowledge between objects of interests, we propose a framework that incorporates knowledge graphs for describing the relationships between multiple labels. Our model learns an information propagation mechanism from the semantic label space, which can be applied to model the interdependencies between seen and unseen class labels. With such investigation of structured knowledge graphs for visual reasoning, we show that our model can be applied for solving multi-label classification and ML-ZSL tasks. Compared to state-of-the-art approaches, comparable or improved performances can be achieved by our method.

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Image segmentation needs both local boundary position information and global object context information. The performance of the recent state-of-the-art method, fully convolutional networks, reaches a bottleneck due to the neural network limit after balancing between the two types of information simultaneously in an end-to-end training style. To overcome this problem, we divide the semantic image segmentation into temporal subtasks. First, we find a possible pixel position of some object boundary; then trace the boundary at steps within a limited length until the whole object is outlined. We present the first deep reinforcement learning approach to semantic image segmentation, called DeepOutline, which outperforms other algorithms in Coco detection leaderboard in the middle and large size person category in Coco val2017 dataset. Meanwhile, it provides an insight into a divide and conquer way by reinforcement learning on computer vision problems.

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One of the most common tasks in medical imaging is semantic segmentation. Achieving this segmentation automatically has been an active area of research, but the task has been proven very challenging due to the large variation of anatomy across different patients. However, recent advances in deep learning have made it possible to significantly improve the performance of image recognition and semantic segmentation methods in the field of computer vision. Due to the data driven approaches of hierarchical feature learning in deep learning frameworks, these advances can be translated to medical images without much difficulty. Several variations of deep convolutional neural networks have been successfully applied to medical images. Especially fully convolutional architectures have been proven efficient for segmentation of 3D medical images. In this article, we describe how to build a 3D fully convolutional network (FCN) that can process 3D images in order to produce automatic semantic segmentations. The model is trained and evaluated on a clinical computed tomography (CT) dataset and shows state-of-the-art performance in multi-organ segmentation.

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Collecting training data from the physical world is usually time-consuming and even dangerous for fragile robots, and thus, recent advances in robot learning advocate the use of simulators as the training platform. Unfortunately, the reality gap between synthetic and real visual data prohibits direct migration of the models trained in virtual worlds to the real world. This paper proposes a modular architecture for tackling the virtual-to-real problem. The proposed architecture separates the learning model into a perception module and a control policy module, and uses semantic image segmentation as the meta representation for relating these two modules. The perception module translates the perceived RGB image to semantic image segmentation. The control policy module is implemented as a deep reinforcement learning agent, which performs actions based on the translated image segmentation. Our architecture is evaluated in an obstacle avoidance task and a target following task. Experimental results show that our architecture significantly outperforms all of the baseline methods in both virtual and real environments, and demonstrates a faster learning curve than them. We also present a detailed analysis for a variety of variant configurations, and validate the transferability of our modular architecture.

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