Generating novel, yet realistic, images of persons is a challenging task due to the complex interplay between the different image factors, such as the foreground, background and pose information. In this work, we aim at generating such images based on a novel, two-stage reconstruction pipeline that learns a disentangled representation of the aforementioned image factors and generates novel person images at the same time. First, a multi-branched reconstruction network is proposed to disentangle and encode the three factors into embedding features, which are then combined to re-compose the input image itself. Second, three corresponding mapping functions are learned in an adversarial manner in order to map Gaussian noise to the learned embedding feature space, for each factor respectively. Using the proposed framework, we can manipulate the foreground, background and pose of the input image, and also sample new embedding features to generate such targeted manipulations, that provide more control over the generation process. Experiments on Market-1501 and Deepfashion datasets show that our model does not only generate realistic person images with new foregrounds, backgrounds and poses, but also manipulates the generated factors and interpolates the in-between states. Another set of experiments on Market-1501 shows that our model can also be beneficial for the person re-identification task.
This paper proposes a new generative adversarial network for pose transfer, i.e., transferring the pose of a given person to a target pose. The generator of the network comprises a sequence of Pose-Attentional Transfer Blocks that each transfers certain regions it attends to, generating the person image progressively. Compared with those in previous works, our generated person images possess better appearance consistency and shape consistency with the input images, thus significantly more realistic-looking. The efficacy and efficiency of the proposed network are validated both qualitatively and quantitatively on Market-1501 and DeepFashion. Furthermore, the proposed architecture can generate training images for person re-identification, alleviating data insufficiency. Codes and models are available at: https://github.com/tengteng95/Pose-Transfer.git.
Most image completion methods produce only one result for each masked input, although there may be many reasonable possibilities. In this paper, we present an approach for pluralistic image completion - the task of generating multiple and diverse plausible solutions for image completion. A major challenge faced by learning-based approaches is that usually only one ground truth training instance per label. As such, sampling from conditional VAEs still leads to minimal diversity. To overcome this, we propose a novel and probabilistically principled framework with two parallel paths. One is a reconstructive path that extends the VAE through a latent space that covers all partial images with different mask sizes, and imposes priors that adapt to the number of pixels. The other is a generative path for which the conditional prior is coupled to distributions obtained in the reconstructive path. Both are supported by GANs. We also introduce a new short+long term attention layer that exploits distant relations among decoder and encoder features, improving appearance consistency. When tested on datasets with buildings (Paris), faces (CelebAHQ), and natural images (ImageNet), our method not only generated higher-quality completion results, but also with multiple and diverse plausible outputs.
Generating plausible hair image given limited guidance, such as sparse sketches or low-resolution image, has been made possible with the rise of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Traditional image-to-image translation networks can generate recognizable results, but finer textures are usually lost and blur artifacts commonly exist. In this paper, we propose a two-phase generative model for high-quality hair image synthesis. The two-phase pipeline first generates a coarse image by an existing image translation model, then applies a re-generating network with self-enhancing capability to the coarse image. The self-enhancing capability is achieved by a proposed structure extraction layer, which extracts the texture and orientation map from a hair image. Extensive experiments on two tasks, Sketch2Hair and Hair Super-Resolution, demonstrate that our approach is able to synthesize plausible hair image with finer details, and outperforms the state-of-the-art.
Image-to-image translation aims to learn the mapping between two visual domains. There are two main challenges for many applications: 1) the lack of aligned training pairs and 2) multiple possible outputs from a single input image. In this work, we present an approach based on disentangled representation for producing diverse outputs without paired training images. To achieve diversity, we propose to embed images onto two spaces: a domain-invariant content space capturing shared information across domains and a domain-specific attribute space. Our model takes the encoded content features extracted from a given input and the attribute vectors sampled from the attribute space to produce diverse outputs at test time. To handle unpaired training data, we introduce a novel cross-cycle consistency loss based on disentangled representations. Qualitative results show that our model can generate diverse and realistic images on a wide range of tasks without paired training data. For quantitative comparisons, we measure realism with user study and diversity with a perceptual distance metric. We apply the proposed model to domain adaptation and show competitive performance when compared to the state-of-the-art on the MNIST-M and the LineMod datasets.
Person Re-identification (re-id) faces two major challenges: the lack of cross-view paired training data and learning discriminative identity-sensitive and view-invariant features in the presence of large pose variations. In this work, we address both problems by proposing a novel deep person image generation model for synthesizing realistic person images conditional on the pose. The model is based on a generative adversarial network (GAN) designed specifically for pose normalization in re-id, thus termed pose-normalization GAN (PN-GAN). With the synthesized images, we can learn a new type of deep re-id feature free of the influence of pose variations. We show that this feature is strong on its own and complementary to features learned with the original images. Importantly, under the transfer learning setting, we show that our model generalizes well to any new re-id dataset without the need for collecting any training data for model fine-tuning. The model thus has the potential to make re-id model truly scalable.
Image captioning approaches currently generate descriptions which lack specific information, such as named entities that are involved in the images. In this paper we propose a new task which aims to generate informative image captions, given images and hashtags as input. We propose a simple, but effective approach in which we, first, train a CNN-LSTM model to generate a template caption based on the input image. Then we use a knowledge graph based collective inference algorithm to fill in the template with specific named entities retrieved via the hashtags. Experiments on a new benchmark dataset collected from Flickr show that our model generates news-style image descriptions with much richer information. The METEOR score of our model almost triples the score of the baseline image captioning model on our benchmark dataset, from 4.8 to 13.60.
Raindrops adhered to a glass window or camera lens can severely hamper the visibility of a background scene and degrade an image considerably. In this paper, we address the problem by visually removing raindrops, and thus transforming a raindrop degraded image into a clean one. The problem is intractable, since first the regions occluded by raindrops are not given. Second, the information about the background scene of the occluded regions is completely lost for most part. To resolve the problem, we apply an attentive generative network using adversarial training. Our main idea is to inject visual attention into both the generative and discriminative networks. During the training, our visual attention learns about raindrop regions and their surroundings. Hence, by injecting this information, the generative network will pay more attention to the raindrop regions and the surrounding structures, and the discriminative network will be able to assess the local consistency of the restored regions. This injection of visual attention to both generative and discriminative networks is the main contribution of this paper. Our experiments show the effectiveness of our approach, which outperforms the state of the art methods quantitatively and qualitatively.
In this paper, we propose an improved quantitative evaluation framework for Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) on generating domain-specific images, where we improve conventional evaluation methods on two levels: the feature representation and the evaluation metric. Unlike most existing evaluation frameworks which transfer the representation of ImageNet inception model to map images onto the feature space, our framework uses a specialized encoder to acquire fine-grained domain-specific representation. Moreover, for datasets with multiple classes, we propose Class-Aware Frechet Distance (CAFD), which employs a Gaussian mixture model on the feature space to better fit the multi-manifold feature distribution. Experiments and analysis on both the feature level and the image level were conducted to demonstrate improvements of our proposed framework over the recently proposed state-of-the-art FID method. To our best knowledge, we are the first to provide counter examples where FID gives inconsistent results with human judgments. It is shown in the experiments that our framework is able to overcome the shortness of FID and improves robustness. Code will be made available.
While attributes have been widely used for person re-identification (Re-ID) that matches the same person images across disjoint camera views, they are used either as extra features or for performing multi-task learning to assist the image-image person matching task. However, how to find a set of person images according to a given attribute description, which is very practical in many surveillance applications, remains a rarely investigated cross-modal matching problem in Person Re-ID. In this work, we present this challenge and employ adversarial learning to formulate the attribute-image cross-modal person Re-ID model. By imposing the regularization on the semantic consistency constraint across modalities, the adversarial learning enables generating image-analogous concepts for query attributes and getting it matched with image in both global level and semantic ID level. We conducted extensive experiments on three attribute datasets and demonstrated that the adversarial modelling is so far the most effective for the attributeimage cross-modal person Re-ID problem.
Person re-identification (re-ID) models trained on one domain often fail to generalize well to another. In our attempt, we present a "learning via translation" framework. In the baseline, we translate the labeled images from source to target domain in an unsupervised manner. We then train re-ID models with the translated images by supervised methods. Yet, being an essential part of this framework, unsupervised image-image translation suffers from the information loss of source-domain labels during translation. Our motivation is two-fold. First, for each image, the discriminative cues contained in its ID label should be maintained after translation. Second, given the fact that two domains have entirely different persons, a translated image should be dissimilar to any of the target IDs. To this end, we propose to preserve two types of unsupervised similarities, 1) self-similarity of an image before and after translation, and 2) domain-dissimilarity of a translated source image and a target image. Both constraints are implemented in the similarity preserving generative adversarial network (SPGAN) which consists of a Siamese network and a CycleGAN. Through domain adaptation experiment, we show that images generated by SPGAN are more suitable for domain adaptation and yield consistent and competitive re-ID accuracy on two large-scale datasets.